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Irrigation of Water by Automatic Sprinkler System



Retraction: Irrigation of Water by Automatic Sprinkler
System (IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 1145 012107)
Published 23 February 2022
This article (and all articles in the proceedings volume relating to the same conference) has been
retracted by IOP Publishing following an extensive investigation in line with the COPE guidelines.
This investigation has uncovered evidence of systematic manipulation of the publication process and
considerable citation manipulation.
IOP Publishing respectfully requests that readers consider all work within this volume potentially
unreliable, as the volume has not been through a credible peer review process.
IOP Publishing regrets that our usual quality checks did not identify these issues before publication,
and have since put additional measures in place to try to prevent these issues from reoccurring. IOP
Publishing wishes to credit anonymous whistleblowers and the Problematic Paper Screener [1] for
bringing some of the above issues to our attention, prompting us to investigate further.
[1] Cabanac G, Labbé C and Magazinov A 2021 arXiv:2107.06751v1
Retraction published: 23 February 2022
Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution
of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.
Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd
Content from this work may be used under the terms of theCreative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution
of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.
Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1145 (2021) 012107
IOP Publishing
Irrigation of Water by Automatic Sprinkler System
R Nelson1
, U Sankar2
, E G Ramanathan2
, V Sankar Prasanth2 and A Sherwin
1Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Krishna College of
Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Krishna College of Technology,
Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
[email protected]
Abstract. In all agricultural seasons, an automatic irrigation system has been designed to
facilitate the automated provide of adequate water from a reservoir to field or domestic crops.
One of the goals of this research is to determine how human control can be removed from
irrigation while also optimising water use in the process. The method used is to continuously
monitor the soil moisture level in order to determine whether irrigation is required and how much
water is required in the soil. Various types of sprinkler irrigation systems were studied in this
study, along with their design, construction, and installation. The planning was aided by the use
of a rotating system to irrigate a small plot, which provides a suitable scientific basis for correct
water scheduling, system evaluation, and minimising water waste and runoff. It was intended for
a variety of crops. The significance of the design and installation is to provide the University’s
irrigation research Field with irrigation field demonstration practise facilities that can be used.
Key Words: Agricultural, Crops, Construction, Design, Irrigation, sprinkler.

  1. Introduction
    Irrigation may be a perfect methodology for distributing water to soil that strengthens the crops in the
    field. Irrigation is employed to complement the water on the market from downfall, field soil wetness.
    Quantity of downfall on the market in several components of the globe is light to satisfy crop wetness
    necessities [1]. As a result, adequate irrigation provision is important for sure-fire crop production. The
    job of irrigation system is often classified into indirect and direct advantages [2].
    The most direct advantage includes an increase in crop production by higher yield to achieve food
    self-sufficiency, cultivation of crops, land value appreciation that makes land holders more wealthier
    and domestic water distribution system to towns and villages [3]. Sprinkler irrigation is a significant
    advancement over traditional surface irrigation[4]. This promotes natural rainfall therefore by
    distributing water in rainy form over the land surface while needed in the essential pattern and in
    required quantity.
    The water should be distributed in an amount determined by the soil’s infiltration level in order to
    avoid runoff from irrigation [5]. This type of Sprinkler irrigation systems is ideal for undulating terrain,
    an insufficient of available water, shallow soils and where uniform water distribution is required [6].
    To optimise the use of water for agricultural crops, a proper automated irrigation system must be
    developed [7]. A proper automatic irrigation system must include all the components that auto
    ICCMES 2021
    IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1145 (2021) 012107
    IOP Publishing
    monitors and controls the amount of water to be distributed to the plants without the need for human
    interference or failure [8].
    How the system functions
    • Constantly assess the quantity of water needed to plants (this is monitored using a sensor system).
    • By the data collected from observing the water content in the soil, it can able to determine if the plants
    require watering.
    • Provide the adequate amount of water required to the plants. This gets improved based on how good
    it meets the requirements.
    • Turn off the supply of water once the necessary amount of water has been delivered to the plants.
  2. System Design
    The work is divided into four subsystems that comprise the automatic irrigation control system: supply
    of paper, a control unit, sensing unit, and pumping systems. A soil moisture sensor is built in order to
    note the soil’s electrical resistance. A 12V power supplying unit is built in order to provide enough
    power to the system [9]. An operational amplifier and timer were used to implement the control circuit;
    and a pumping subsystem which has a submersible micro water pump with less noise was built using a
    DC-operated motor [10]. Figure 1 shows the system design.
    Figure 1. System design
  3. Working
    This automated system of irrigation is fabricated to constantly monitor the moisture level of soil. This
    system works accurately by supplying required amount of water to the soil and shutting off the supply
    of water when the necessary soil moisture rate is reached [11]. Corrosion resistant materials are used in
    fabricating soil moisture sensors and can be embedded in soil samples [12]. The resistance between the
    moisture detectors is measured and making it to match with the output voltages of the comparator circuit,
    computations are made of the voltages according to the dry and wet states of the soil [13].
    The amount of water needed for the irrigation per unit time was calculated by taking the water pump’s
    capacity and the water sprinkler’s capacity into account [14]. The time needed for irrigation was
    calculated by taking the water pump’s response time and the volume of water needed per irrigation into
    account. A proper timing circuit was also designed to guide the duration time of each irrigation
    occurrence using the required irrigation time
    ICCMES 2021
    IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1145 (2021) 012107
    IOP Publishing
  4. System Components
    The Control circuit consists of Bread Board, jump wires, relay module, resistors and high rated diode.
    The sensing circuit consists of Arduino UNO and Soil moisture sensor and also a pump, a DC motor
    and Water sprinkler [16-22].
    4.1.Bread Board
    ❖ Dimensions: “3.28 x 2.14 x 0.32”
    ❖ Breadboard: 400 coloured points
    ❖ Material-Plastic
    Figure 2 shows the bread board.
    Figure 2. Bread board
    4.2. Jumper Wires:
    ❖ 40-pin ribbon cable jumper wires.
    ❖ 0.1″ sockets on any one of the ends and fits on standard-pitch 0.1″
    ❖ Wire: 28 AWG (36 AWG if 7strands)
    Figure 3 shows the Jumper wires.
    Figure 3. Jumper wires
    ❖ Conformal coated
    ❖ Epoxy coated
    ❖ Controlled temperature coefficient
    ❖ High frequency
    ❖ Low noise: typically 0.10 μ V/V
    ❖ Low voltage coefficient upto ± 5 ppm/V
    Figure 4 shows the resistor.
    ICCMES 2021
    IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1145 (2021) 012107
    IOP Publishing
    Figure 4. Resistor
    Figure 5. Diode
    ❖ Case: Moulded
    ❖ Weight: 0.4 g(appx)
    ❖ Finish: Corrosion Resistant and Readily Solderable
    ❖ Polarity: Polarity Band indicated cathode
    Figure 5 shows the diode and Figure 6 shows the Arduino.
    4.5. Arduino
    Figure 6. Arduino
    4.6. Soil Moisture Sensor
    Type of battery: CR2450 x 1
    3 years of battery life (typical)
    Range of sight: 700 feet (210 metres) (at default setting.)
    100 percent moisture, 8-bit
    -40°C to 85°C temperature range
    Typical sensor accuracy is +/-1°C, with a limit of -2/+4°C.
    10-bit sensor quantization level (resolution), 0.25°C (0.45°F)
    Figure 7 and Figure 8 shows the
    Soil moisture sensor and DC Motor
    ICCMES 2021
    IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1145 (2021) 012107
    IOP Publishing
    Figure 7. Soil moisture sensor
    4.7.Dc Motor
    ● DC motor: 130 Type
    ● Voltage (4.6V to 9V).
    ● Recommended Voltage: 6V.
    ●Current with zero load: 70mA (max)
    ●Speed with zero load: 9000 rpm.
    ● Loaded current: 250mA (appx)
    ● Rated amount of Load: 10g*cm.
    ● Dimensions of the motor: 27.5mm x 20mm x 15mm
    Figure 8. DC Motor
  5. Calculations
    Table 1 and Table 2 shows the calculations of Spray Head Flow and Lawn Watering Times
    Table 1: Spray Head Flow
    Spray Head Flow – Avearge Gallons Per Minute(Gpm)
    Spray 1quarte 1third 1half( 2thirds 3quarter Ful
    Head R(1/4) (1/3) 1/2) (2/3) S(3/4) L
    Arc Circ
    90° Arc 120° 180° 240° Arc 270° Arc
    Cover Le
    Arc Arc
    ICCMES 2021
    IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1145 (2021) 012107
    IOP Publishing
    5’ 0.10 0.12 0.21 0.25 0.29 0.39
    8’ 0.25 0.31 0.50 0.70 0.76 1.02
    10’ 0.40 0.55 0.80 0.97 1.04 1.60
    12’ 0.80 1.23 1.60 1.78 2.50
    15’ 0.91 1.20 1.80 2.34 2.75 3.70
    Numbers Are Based On Average Of 3 Top Brand Spray Heads And At An Optimum Water Pressure
    30kpa.Variation Will Occur With Various Brand And At Different Water
    Table 2: Lawn Watering Times
    MAY 12 24 30 18
    JUNE 17 35 43 26
    JULY 18 36 45 27
    AUGUST 14 27 34 20
    SEPTEMBER 11 23 28 17
    ICCMES 2021
    IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1145 (2021) 012107
    IOP Publishing
    Figure 9. Sprinkler and Sensor Readings
  6. Result
    With the same soil test, irrigation becomes precise, realistic, and simple. By this concept agriculture can
    be taken to the new and futuristic level. The water and quantity contents are not a normal output from
    moisture sensors, and the levelling system plays a vital role in deciding the quantity and volumetric
    water contents. Involvement in the development of the final product, the resistance of soil between the
    positive supply and non-inverting supply inputs is relatively high, which results in a lower positive
    supply to the non-inverting input which is higher than the inverting input, resulting in a logic low
    comparator performance when the soil is dry.
    This is the order that Arduino receives. In this case, the microcontroller sends a logic high signal,
    which activates a relay driver transistor and turning on the pumping motor. As a result, water flow
    begins. The soil resistance decreases as the soil becomes sufficiently wet, allowing an available voltage
    to the non-inverting input resulting in a comparator’s output that is high logic and provided to the
    microcontroller. In this case, the microcontroller sends a low logic signal to transistor which switches
    off the relay and turns on the motor pump
  7. Conclusion
    A proper algorithmic proposal in designing a sensor-based controller system for measuring several
    critical parameters for a plant culture such as moisture of the soil, humidity, intensity of the light, and
    temperature are under consideration. The final result of the evaluations after the parameter values have
    been sensed must be definitive and precise. The framework must prevent many of the flaws found in
    current systems by carefully managing complexity while still offering a versatile means of preserving
    the environment. The aim is to keep hardware and software costs as low as possible.
    This hardware and software cost reduction will increase the use of electronic systems in agriculture
    that paves the growth of the agricultural industries in many areas thereby increasing the rate of quality
    and quantity of the production. By using required technologies and components several similar systems
    can be developed.
    ICCMES 2021
    IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1145 (2021) 012107
    IOP Publishing
    [1] Arshad ali , International journal of advanced and applied sciences , Internet Of Things
    embedded smart sensors system for agriculture and farm management, 7 (10), pp 38-45, 2020
    [2] Ms.Darshana chaware, IJERT, Sensor based automated irrigation system. 04, (2015)
    [3] Jose cavero , agronomy journal ,Relevance of sprinkler irrigation time and water losses in
    maize yield. 105(3), p 827, 2013
    [4] Glande et al, journal on automatic sprinkler irrigation system, 2007.
    [5] Swarup et al, Effect of continuous sodic irrigation water, 73(2), pp 111-118,2005
    [6] Saleemmaleek, Design and implementation of solar powered automatic irrigation system, IEEE
    International conference,2013.
    [7] Prathyusha et al, international journal of computer science engineering and applications, 3(4),
    pp 75-80,2013.
    [8] Cosmin et al, International conference of advance research and innovation,2012 .
    [9] Yetharaj et al, Method of water irrigation and water productivity, international journal on
    research and innovation,2012.
    [10] Haldorai, A. Ramu, and S. Murugan, Social Aware Cognitive Radio Networks, Social Network
    Analytics for Contemporary Business Organizations, pp. 188–202. doi:10.4018/978-1-5225-
    [11] R. Arulmurugan and H. Anandakumar, Region-based seed point cell segmentation and detection
    for biomedical image analysis, International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and
    Technology, vol. 27, no. 4, p. 273, 2018.
    [12] Pranit et al , International conference of advance research and innovation,2014.
    [13] Udupa et al, Using arduino board for automatic pulse irrigation system, misr journal of
    agricultural engineering,2015.
    [14] Kiran kumar et al, different irrigation water sources in a typical black soil, an asian journal of
    soil science 10(1), pp 154-157,2015.
    [15] Mamta et al, Journal of applied and natural science, 7(2), pp 1070-80, 2015.
    [16] Suraj et al, Effects of waste water on the soil and irrigation process, Journal of geographical
    studies, 1(1), pp 46-55,2015.
    [17] Rayala et al, Study on automated irrigation system process, 2015.
    [18] Archana and Priya et al, automatic water conserving irrigation system, (IJCSIT) International
    [19] SonaliD.Gainwar and Dinesh V. Rojatkar et al, International Research journal of engineering
    and technology (IRJET),2015.
    [20] R.Balaji and M.Sudha et al, International journal of innovative technology and exploring
    engineering (IJITEE),2016.
    [21] S.Reshma and B.A.Sarath, IOT based Automatic irrigation system ,International journal,2016.
    [22] Joaquin Gutierrez, Automated Irrigation systems using a wireless sensor network and GPRS
    module , IEEE transactions on instrumentation and measurement,2013.
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Trader Joe’s: A Unique Grocery Shopping Experience



Trader Joe's: A Unique Grocery Shopping Experience

Discover the unparalleled shopping experience at Trader Joe’s, a renowned grocery store chain offering a wide range of high-quality products at affordable prices. Explore the diverse selection, innovative offerings, and friendly atmosphere that make Trader Joe’s a favorite destination for food enthusiasts.

Introduction: Welcome to Trader Joe’s

Trader Joe’s has revolutionized the grocery shopping industry with its distinctive approach to retail. With a commitment to providing unique and high-quality products, Trader Joe’s has garnered a loyal following of customers who are eager to explore the ever-changing assortment of items on their shelves. In this article, we will delve into the world of Trader Joe’s and explore the reasons why it stands out from the competition.

Trader Joe’s: A Shopper’s Paradise

A Haven for Food Enthusiasts

Trader Joe’s is more than just a grocery store; it’s a paradise for food enthusiasts. With an extensive selection of gourmet and specialty items sourced from around the world, Trader Joe’s caters to the discerning palate. From unique snacks and appetizers to artisanal cheeses and decadent desserts, there’s always something new and exciting to discover at Trader Joe’s.

Unbeatable Prices and Value

One of the hallmarks of Trader Joe’s is its commitment to providing exceptional value to its customers. While the store offers a wide range of high-quality products, it manages to keep its prices affordable. This combination of quality and value is what sets Trader Joe’s apart from its competitors, making it an attractive option for budget-conscious shoppers.

A Neighborhood Vibe

Step into any Trader Joe’s, and you’ll immediately notice the warm and welcoming atmosphere. With friendly staff members who are always ready to assist you, shopping at Trader Joe’s feels like a visit to your neighborhood store. The company prides itself on fostering a sense of community and creating an enjoyable shopping experience for its customers.

Exploring Trader Joe’s Selection

A Cornucopia of Fresh Produce

Trader Joe’s offers an impressive selection of fresh fruits and vegetables, sourced from trusted suppliers. Whether you’re in search of everyday staples or exotic produce, Trader Joe’s has you covered. From crisp apples to vibrant heirloom tomatoes, their produce section boasts a colorful array of options that will inspire any home cook.

Delightful Dairy and Cheese Selection

Cheese lovers rejoice! Trader Joe’s is renowned for its diverse selection of cheeses from around the world. From creamy Brie to tangy blue cheese, you’ll find a range of flavors and textures to suit your taste buds. Pair your favorite cheese with their assortment of crackers and you’re in for a treat.

International Flavors Galore

At Trader Joe’s, you can embark on a global culinary adventure without leaving the store. Their shelves are stocked with a wide variety of international ingredients and products, allowing you to explore different cuisines and expand your culinary horizons. Whether you’re in the mood for Thai curry, Italian pasta, or Indian spices, Trader Joe’s has everything you need to create authentic and flavorful dishes.

Unique and Innovative Offerings

One of the reasons why Trader Joe’s is so beloved is its constant introduction of unique and innovative products. The store takes pride in being a trendsetter in the grocery industry, and customers eagerly anticipate the arrival of new items. From seasonal treats to unexpected flavor combinations, Trader Joe’s never fails to surprise and delight its customers.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What makes Trader Joe’s different from other grocery stores?

Trader Joe’s stands out from other grocery stores due to its unique selection of products, unbeatable prices, and friendly atmosphere. The store offers an exciting array of gourmet and specialty items, all at affordable prices,making it a destination for food enthusiasts. Additionally, Trader Joe’s prides itself on creating a neighborhood vibe with its welcoming staff and sense of community.

2. Does Trader Joe’s offer organic and healthy options?

Yes, Trader Joe’s is known for its commitment to offering a wide range of organic and healthy options. The store carries a variety of organic produce, as well as organic dairy products, meats, and pantry staples. In addition, Trader Joe’s has a selection of gluten-free, vegan, and vegetarian products to cater to different dietary preferences and needs.

3. Are Trader Joe’s products affordable compared to other grocery stores?

Yes, Trader Joe’s is renowned for its affordability. While providing high-quality products, Trader Joe’s manages to keep its prices competitive. This combination of quality and value makes it an attractive choice for shoppers looking to get the most out of their budget.

4. Can I find international ingredients and spices at Trader Joe’s?

Absolutely! Trader Joe’s takes pride in offering a diverse range of international ingredients and spices. Whether you’re looking for exotic spices for a specific recipe or unique international snacks, Trader Joe’s has a selection that will satisfy your culinary cravings.

5. Are there any Trader Joe’s branded products?

Yes, Trader Joe’s has its own line of branded products. These Trader Joe’s branded items are carefully curated and developed to meet the company’s high standards for quality and taste. From snacks and pantry staples to frozen meals and beverages, you’ll find a variety of Trader Joe’s branded products throughout the store.

6. Does Trader Joe’s have a return policy?

Yes, Trader Joe’s has a customer-friendly return policy. If you’re not satisfied with a product you’ve purchased, you can return it to the store with a receipt for a full refund. Trader Joe’s aims to ensure customer satisfaction and stands behind the quality of their products.

Conclusion: A Shopping Experience Like No Other

Trader Joe’s offers a shopping experience that is truly unique. With its diverse and high-quality product selection, unbeatable prices, and friendly atmosphere, it has become a favorite destination for food enthusiasts and budget-conscious shoppers alike. Whether you’re searching for everyday essentials, international ingredients, or innovative snacks, Trader Joe’s has something to offer. So, the next time you’re in search of a grocery store adventure, don’t miss out on the vibrant and exciting world of Trader Joe’s.

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Rebbe’s Dollar distribution



Rebbe's Dollar distribution

Uncover the extraordinary story of the Rebbe’s Dollar distribution, a powerful tradition that has transformed lives and inspired acts of kindness across the globe.

The Rebbe’s one-dollar bill, a symbol of charity and compassion, continues to embody the spiritual legacy of Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, inspiring countless individuals to embrace a life of giving and kindness.

Every Sunday, people from all walks of life – Jews and non-Jews alike – would line up outside the Rebbe’s residence at 770 Eastern Parkway in Brooklyn, New York, eager to receive a dollar bill and a blessing from the Rebbe.

It was a testament to the universal nature of the Rebbe’s message of love, kindness, and the power of good deeds.

The Rebbe would hand out dollar bills to each individual, instructing them to donate the money to a charity of their choice. Through this small act of giving, the Rebbe instilled the value of charity and the potential of a single dollar to create positive change.

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Sustainable Diamonds – What You Need to Know About Lab-Grown Diamonds in NZ



Sustainable Diamonds - What You Need to Know About Lab-Grown Diamonds in NZ

The use of lab grown diamonds NZ in jewellery has been growing rapidly over the last few years. This is because they are eco-friendly, and they cost less than mined diamonds. However, it is essential to understand the differences between a lab-grown and a mined diamond before making a purchase decision.

A Lab-Grown Diamond is a synthetic diamond created by humans in a lab instead of being mined from the ground. They are similar to natural diamonds in almost every way, except that they do not cloud or lose their luster over time.

There are several processes that can be used to grow a diamond in a lab, but the most common ones are High Pressure-High Temperature (HPHT) and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). These methods are incredibly complex, but they have the same end goal: to replicate the conditions that naturally occur when a diamond grows on the earth’s surface.

Unlike mined diamonds, formed after millions of years of exposure to extreme heat and temperatures within the earth’s crust, lab-grown diamonds are created by scientists in a controlled environment. This allows them to mimic the same physical and chemical properties of natural diamonds, while also being significantly cheaper and environmentally friendly.

How They’re Made

When a diamond seed is placed inside of a sealed chamber, it is pressurized and heated until the carbon particles break down and crystallize into a fully grown diamond. This process is called growing a diamond in a lab, and many companies have done it since the 1960s.

In addition to being more sustainable, lab-grown diamonds are more ethical than mined diamonds because they don’t heavily impact the environment. For example, a study by Frost & Sullivan found that for each carat of diamonds mined using traditional methods, nearly 100 square feet of land is disturbed and more than 5,798 pounds of mineral waste are created.

Another great thing about lab-grown diamonds is that they don’t consume as much water in the making process. This is because the processes involved in creating a mined diamond require significant amounts of water, and they also create a lot of pollution.

This can lead to many issues, including depleted water supplies and environmental calamities. In addition, the soil can be destroyed, and in turn, the land is rendered unusable once mining operations have ceased.

It is also worth noting that lab-grown diamonds don’t contribute to global warming like mined diamonds, as their carbon is sourced from CO2 emissions. This is a very good thing for the planet, and it is one of the major reasons why people are switching to lab-grown diamonds instead of mined diamonds.

If you want to buy a piece of jewellery with a lab-grown diamond, you’ll need to do some research and make sure that you are getting a good deal on the product. You can do this by checking out prices at different retailers and comparing the costs. You can then choose which option is best for you and your budget.

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