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Irrigation of Water by Automatic Sprinkler System

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Retraction
Retraction: Irrigation of Water by Automatic Sprinkler
System (IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 1145 012107)
Published 23 February 2022
This article (and all articles in the proceedings volume relating to the same conference) has been
retracted by IOP Publishing following an extensive investigation in line with the COPE guidelines.
This investigation has uncovered evidence of systematic manipulation of the publication process and
considerable citation manipulation.
IOP Publishing respectfully requests that readers consider all work within this volume potentially
unreliable, as the volume has not been through a credible peer review process.
IOP Publishing regrets that our usual quality checks did not identify these issues before publication,
and have since put additional measures in place to try to prevent these issues from reoccurring. IOP
Publishing wishes to credit anonymous whistleblowers and the Problematic Paper Screener [1] for
bringing some of the above issues to our attention, prompting us to investigate further.
[1] Cabanac G, Labbé C and Magazinov A 2021 arXiv:2107.06751v1
Retraction published: 23 February 2022
Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution
of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.
Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd
Content from this work may be used under the terms of theCreative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution
of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.
Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd
ICCMES 2021
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1145 (2021) 012107
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1145/1/012107
1
Irrigation of Water by Automatic Sprinkler System
R Nelson1
, U Sankar2
, E G Ramanathan2
, V Sankar Prasanth2 and A Sherwin
Daniel2
1Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Krishna College of
Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Krishna College of Technology,
Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
nelson.r@skct.edu.in
Abstract. In all agricultural seasons, an automatic irrigation system has been designed to
facilitate the automated provide of adequate water from a reservoir to field or domestic crops.
One of the goals of this research is to determine how human control can be removed from
irrigation while also optimising water use in the process. The method used is to continuously
monitor the soil moisture level in order to determine whether irrigation is required and how much
water is required in the soil. Various types of sprinkler irrigation systems were studied in this
study, along with their design, construction, and installation. The planning was aided by the use
of a rotating system to irrigate a small plot, which provides a suitable scientific basis for correct
water scheduling, system evaluation, and minimising water waste and runoff. It was intended for
a variety of crops. The significance of the design and installation is to provide the University’s
irrigation research Field with irrigation field demonstration practise facilities that can be used.
Key Words: Agricultural, Crops, Construction, Design, Irrigation, sprinkler.

  1. Introduction
    Irrigation may be a perfect methodology for distributing water to soil that strengthens the crops in the
    field. Irrigation is employed to complement the water on the market from downfall, field soil wetness.
    Quantity of downfall on the market in several components of the globe is light to satisfy crop wetness
    necessities [1]. As a result, adequate irrigation provision is important for sure-fire crop production. The
    job of irrigation system is often classified into indirect and direct advantages [2].
    The most direct advantage includes an increase in crop production by higher yield to achieve food
    self-sufficiency, cultivation of crops, land value appreciation that makes land holders more wealthier
    and domestic water distribution system to towns and villages [3]. Sprinkler irrigation is a significant
    advancement over traditional surface irrigation[4]. This promotes natural rainfall therefore by
    distributing water in rainy form over the land surface while needed in the essential pattern and in
    required quantity.
    The water should be distributed in an amount determined by the soil’s infiltration level in order to
    avoid runoff from irrigation [5]. This type of Sprinkler irrigation systems is ideal for undulating terrain,
    an insufficient of available water, shallow soils and where uniform water distribution is required [6].
    To optimise the use of water for agricultural crops, a proper automated irrigation system must be
    developed [7]. A proper automatic irrigation system must include all the components that auto
    Retracted
    matically
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    2
    monitors and controls the amount of water to be distributed to the plants without the need for human
    interference or failure [8].
    How the system functions
    • Constantly assess the quantity of water needed to plants (this is monitored using a sensor system).
    • By the data collected from observing the water content in the soil, it can able to determine if the plants
    require watering.
    • Provide the adequate amount of water required to the plants. This gets improved based on how good
    it meets the requirements.
    • Turn off the supply of water once the necessary amount of water has been delivered to the plants.
  2. System Design
    The work is divided into four subsystems that comprise the automatic irrigation control system: supply
    of paper, a control unit, sensing unit, and pumping systems. A soil moisture sensor is built in order to
    note the soil’s electrical resistance. A 12V power supplying unit is built in order to provide enough
    power to the system [9]. An operational amplifier and timer were used to implement the control circuit;
    and a pumping subsystem which has a submersible micro water pump with less noise was built using a
    DC-operated motor [10]. Figure 1 shows the system design.
    Figure 1. System design
  3. Working
    This automated system of irrigation is fabricated to constantly monitor the moisture level of soil. This
    system works accurately by supplying required amount of water to the soil and shutting off the supply
    of water when the necessary soil moisture rate is reached [11]. Corrosion resistant materials are used in
    fabricating soil moisture sensors and can be embedded in soil samples [12]. The resistance between the
    moisture detectors is measured and making it to match with the output voltages of the comparator circuit,
    computations are made of the voltages according to the dry and wet states of the soil [13].
    The amount of water needed for the irrigation per unit time was calculated by taking the water pump’s
    capacity and the water sprinkler’s capacity into account [14]. The time needed for irrigation was
    calculated by taking the water pump’s response time and the volume of water needed per irrigation into
    account. A proper timing circuit was also designed to guide the duration time of each irrigation
    occurrence using the required irrigation time
    Retracted
    [15].
    ICCMES 2021
    IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1145 (2021) 012107
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    doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1145/1/012107
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  4. System Components
    The Control circuit consists of Bread Board, jump wires, relay module, resistors and high rated diode.
    The sensing circuit consists of Arduino UNO and Soil moisture sensor and also a pump, a DC motor
    and Water sprinkler [16-22].
    4.1.Bread Board
    Specifications
    ❖ Dimensions: “3.28 x 2.14 x 0.32”
    ❖ Breadboard: 400 coloured points
    ❖ Material-Plastic
    Figure 2 shows the bread board.
    Figure 2. Bread board
    4.2. Jumper Wires:
    Specifications
    ❖ 40-pin ribbon cable jumper wires.
    ❖ 0.1″ sockets on any one of the ends and fits on standard-pitch 0.1″
    ❖ Wire: 28 AWG (36 AWG if 7strands)
    Figure 3 shows the Jumper wires.
    Figure 3. Jumper wires
    4.3.Resistor
    Specifications
    ❖ Conformal coated
    ❖ Epoxy coated
    ❖ Controlled temperature coefficient
    ❖ High frequency
    ❖ Low noise: typically 0.10 μ V/V
    ❖ Low voltage coefficient upto ± 5 ppm/V
    Figure 4 shows the resistor.
    Retracted
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    Figure 4. Resistor
    4.4.Diode
    Figure 5. Diode
    Specifications
    ❖ Case: Moulded
    ❖ Weight: 0.4 g(appx)
    ❖ Finish: Corrosion Resistant and Readily Solderable
    ❖ Polarity: Polarity Band indicated cathode
    Figure 5 shows the diode and Figure 6 shows the Arduino.
    4.5. Arduino
    Figure 6. Arduino
    4.6. Soil Moisture Sensor
    Type of battery: CR2450 x 1
    3 years of battery life (typical)
    Range of sight: 700 feet (210 metres) (at default setting.)
    100 percent moisture, 8-bit
    -40°C to 85°C temperature range
    Typical sensor accuracy is +/-1°C, with a limit of -2/+4°C.
    10-bit sensor quantization level (resolution), 0.25°C (0.45°F)
    Figure 7 and Figure 8 shows the
    Retracted
    Soil moisture sensor and DC Motor
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    Figure 7. Soil moisture sensor
    4.7.Dc Motor
    ● DC motor: 130 Type
    ● Voltage (4.6V to 9V).
    ● Recommended Voltage: 6V.
    ●Current with zero load: 70mA (max)
    ●Speed with zero load: 9000 rpm.
    ● Loaded current: 250mA (appx)
    ● Rated amount of Load: 10g*cm.
    ● Dimensions of the motor: 27.5mm x 20mm x 15mm
    Figure 8. DC Motor
  5. Calculations
    Table 1 and Table 2 shows the calculations of Spray Head Flow and Lawn Watering Times
    Table 1: Spray Head Flow
    Spray Head Flow – Avearge Gallons Per Minute(Gpm)
    Spray 1quarte 1third 1half( 2thirds 3quarter Ful
    Head R(1/4) (1/3) 1/2) (2/3) S(3/4) L
    Arc Circ
    90° Arc 120° 180° 240° Arc 270° Arc
    Cover Le
    Arc Arc
    Age
    360°
    Retracted
    Arc
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    6
    5’ 0.10 0.12 0.21 0.25 0.29 0.39
    Radius
    8’ 0.25 0.31 0.50 0.70 0.76 1.02
    Radius
    10’ 0.40 0.55 0.80 0.97 1.04 1.60
    Radius
    12’ 0.80 1.23 1.60 1.78 2.50
    Radius
    0.61
    15’ 0.91 1.20 1.80 2.34 2.75 3.70
    Numbers Are Based On Average Of 3 Top Brand Spray Heads And At An Optimum Water Pressure
    30kpa.Variation Will Occur With Various Brand And At Different Water
    Pressure.
    Table 2: Lawn Watering Times
    LAWN WATERING TIMES
    (FOR LAWNS BASED ON WATERING THREE DAYS PER WEEK)
    MINUTES TO WATER PER ZONE
    WATERING
    MONTHS
    FIXED
    SPRAY
    HEADS
    ROTOR
    HEADS
    ROTARY
    NOZZLES
    MANUAL
    SPRINKLERS
    JANUARYAPRIL
    WATER TREES/SHRUBS AS NEEDED
    MAY 12 24 30 18
    JUNE 17 35 43 26
    JULY 18 36 45 27
    AUGUST 14 27 34 20
    SEPTEMBER 11 23 28 17
    OCTOBER-DECEMBER WATER TRESS/SHRUBS AS NEEDED
    THESE TIMES ARE BASED ON A SPRINKLER SYSTEM RUNNING AT AN EFFICIENT LEVEL.
    Retracted
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    7
    Figure 9. Sprinkler and Sensor Readings
  6. Result
    With the same soil test, irrigation becomes precise, realistic, and simple. By this concept agriculture can
    be taken to the new and futuristic level. The water and quantity contents are not a normal output from
    moisture sensors, and the levelling system plays a vital role in deciding the quantity and volumetric
    water contents. Involvement in the development of the final product, the resistance of soil between the
    positive supply and non-inverting supply inputs is relatively high, which results in a lower positive
    supply to the non-inverting input which is higher than the inverting input, resulting in a logic low
    comparator performance when the soil is dry.
    This is the order that Arduino receives. In this case, the microcontroller sends a logic high signal,
    which activates a relay driver transistor and turning on the pumping motor. As a result, water flow
    begins. The soil resistance decreases as the soil becomes sufficiently wet, allowing an available voltage
    to the non-inverting input resulting in a comparator’s output that is high logic and provided to the
    microcontroller. In this case, the microcontroller sends a low logic signal to transistor which switches
    off the relay and turns on the motor pump
  7. Conclusion
    A proper algorithmic proposal in designing a sensor-based controller system for measuring several
    critical parameters for a plant culture such as moisture of the soil, humidity, intensity of the light, and
    temperature are under consideration. The final result of the evaluations after the parameter values have
    been sensed must be definitive and precise. The framework must prevent many of the flaws found in
    current systems by carefully managing complexity while still offering a versatile means of preserving
    the environment. The aim is to keep hardware and software costs as low as possible.
    This hardware and software cost reduction will increase the use of electronic systems in agriculture
    that paves the growth of the agricultural industries in many areas thereby increasing the rate of quality
    and quantity of the production. By using required technologies and components several similar systems
    can be developed.
    Retracted
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    IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1145 (2021) 012107
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    doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1145/1/012107
    8
    References
    [1] Arshad ali , International journal of advanced and applied sciences , Internet Of Things
    embedded smart sensors system for agriculture and farm management, 7 (10), pp 38-45, 2020
    [2] Ms.Darshana chaware, IJERT, Sensor based automated irrigation system. 04, (2015)
    [3] Jose cavero , agronomy journal ,Relevance of sprinkler irrigation time and water losses in
    maize yield. 105(3), p 827, 2013
    [4] Glande et al, journal on automatic sprinkler irrigation system, 2007.
    [5] Swarup et al, Effect of continuous sodic irrigation water, 73(2), pp 111-118,2005
    [6] Saleemmaleek, Design and implementation of solar powered automatic irrigation system, IEEE
    International conference,2013.
    [7] Prathyusha et al, international journal of computer science engineering and applications, 3(4),
    pp 75-80,2013.
    [8] Cosmin et al, International conference of advance research and innovation,2012 .
    [9] Yetharaj et al, Method of water irrigation and water productivity, international journal on
    research and innovation,2012.
    [10] Haldorai, A. Ramu, and S. Murugan, Social Aware Cognitive Radio Networks, Social Network
    Analytics for Contemporary Business Organizations, pp. 188–202. doi:10.4018/978-1-5225-
    5097-6.ch010
    [11] R. Arulmurugan and H. Anandakumar, Region-based seed point cell segmentation and detection
    for biomedical image analysis, International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and
    Technology, vol. 27, no. 4, p. 273, 2018.
    [12] Pranit et al , International conference of advance research and innovation,2014.
    [13] Udupa et al, Using arduino board for automatic pulse irrigation system, misr journal of
    agricultural engineering,2015.
    [14] Kiran kumar et al, different irrigation water sources in a typical black soil, an asian journal of
    soil science 10(1), pp 154-157,2015.
    [15] Mamta et al, Journal of applied and natural science, 7(2), pp 1070-80, 2015.
    [16] Suraj et al, Effects of waste water on the soil and irrigation process, Journal of geographical
    studies, 1(1), pp 46-55,2015.
    [17] Rayala et al, Study on automated irrigation system process, 2015.
    [18] Archana and Priya et al, automatic water conserving irrigation system, (IJCSIT) International
    journal,2016.
    [19] SonaliD.Gainwar and Dinesh V. Rojatkar et al, International Research journal of engineering
    and technology (IRJET),2015.
    [20] R.Balaji and M.Sudha et al, International journal of innovative technology and exploring
    engineering (IJITEE),2016.
    [21] S.Reshma and B.A.Sarath, IOT based Automatic irrigation system ,International journal,2016.
    [22] Joaquin Gutierrez, Automated Irrigation systems using a wireless sensor network and GPRS
    module , IEEE transactions on instrumentation and measurement,2013.
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Who makes Barracuda Garbage Disposals?

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Who makes Barracuda Garbage Disposals?

A garbage disposal is an electric device fixed under the kitchen sink. Its function is to break down the waste matter flowing down the sink into extremely fine particles which can easily pass through the sewage pipes. It is a helpful tool that makes some daily kitchen chores easier for you. Many companies make garbage disposals in the world. You can find a large variety of good-quality garbage disposals. In this article, I will try to answer the question, “who makes the Barracuda garbage disposals?”

Barracuda is a private-label brand of garbage disposals which is owned by Anaheim Manufacturing Co. This company also makes other Best Garbage Disposals for Small Families including the Waste King and Insinkerator disposals. These garbage disposals are made overseas. Then they are imported by Anaheim which then supplies them along with other brands. Anaheim also makes other brands e.g. GE which is a well-acclaimed brand.

Pocket-friendly products:

Barracuda offers pocket-friendly garbage disposals. They are not as costly as other disposals available in the market under more popular brand names. Their products vary in price, size, warranty, and several features. But almost allBarracuda garbage disposals are good for the money.

Different Barracuda garbage disposals:

Currently, Barracuda offers 4 different garbage disposal models in the market. These 4 disposals are different from one another in their price, size, warranty, and several other features. Let’s discuss briefly each one of these four disposals;

Barracuda 1/3 HP Builder

It has a fast and powerful motor providing 1/3 horsepower helping you get rid of everyday kitchen waste. One of its prominent features is its noise insulation technology. Often, the compact units are quite loud. But the Builder model has advanced technology keeping it quiet when used. Cold rolled steel and stainless steel make most of its body. Hence it is prevented from corrosion for a long time.

It has a continuous feed system. Several units having been reported to drain slowly after installation is a bad thing about this disposal. But still, it is a likable product because it works well and is easy to install. The model being ADA and CEC compliant and its gorgeous modern design are some other desirable features.

Barracuda ¾ HP Deluxe:

This model is costlier than others. It has a larger design as well. But it also comes with the longest warranty offering up to 10 years of warranty. It comes with a removable splash guard. As already mentioned, it is the most expensive of all 4 Barracuda models and has a bulkier design occupying more storage space. But at the same time, it has an advanced insulated sound shell for a quiet experience. Stainless steel makes its grinding system and turntable material.

Barracuda ½ HP Economy:

It has a ½ horsepower motor and a continuous feeder system. Its grinding system is made of cold-rolled steel while the turntable material is made of stainless steel. It comes with a compact size, a 2-year warranty, an already attached power cord. The cause of concern is that several purchasers have reported that their unit has leaked and they had to reinstall the unit which was a bit of a struggle.

Barracuda ½ HP Mid Duty:

Being the largest of the four, it is an ideal disposal for anyone having a larger sink storage space. Its competitive price and high-quality features make it the most popular model of all four. It comes with a removable splash guard and an advanced insulated sound shell. Draining issues due to the removable splash guard and its large size are its downsides. On the other hand, the grinding system and turntable material are made of stainless steel.

That was some brief information about the Barracuda Garbage Disposals. I hope you find it useful. Take care!

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China carried out massive cyberattack operation on Ukraine – report

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China carried out massive cyberattack operation on Ukraine - report

Ukraine’s security service claimed China coordinated thousands of cyberattacks and hacking attempts on official Ukrainian government sites.

China launched a massive cyber operation against the Ukrainian military and its nuclear facilities before Russia began its invasion, according to UK intelligence reports obtained by The Times.

The British reports were backed up by Ukraine’s national security service, the SBU, which claimed China coordinated thousands of cyberattacks and hacking attempts on official Ukrainian government sites.

Some of the sites targeted include over 600 websites belonging to Kyiv’s defense ministry, a statement released by SBU claimed.

China’s goal in the attacks was to steal data and explore ways to shut down Ukrainian defenses and civilian infrastructure, the SBU further claimed.

The attacks, which allegedly began prior to the end of the Winter Olympics in Beijing, peaked on February 23. Russian forces invaded Ukraine 24 hours later.

The SBU stated it is confident in its attribution of the attacks to China due to the “trademark tools and methods” used by the Chinese military’s cyber units.

Responding to SBU’s claims, the UK’s National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) told The Times that it is “investigating these allegations with our international partners.”

Intelligence reports from the US indicate that the information gathered by British and Ukrainian intelligence is accurate, the report also stated.

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Israel News Does Netanyahu have a Donald Trump problem?

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Israel News Does Netanyahu have a Donald Trump problem?

DIPLOMATIC AFFAIRS: With Kushner’s new book portraying the Netanyahu-Trump relationship as not as rosy as it once had seemed, the former US president may no longer be an asset to the Likud campaign.

Israel News :For opposition leader Benjamin Netanyahu, 2019 was a simpler time. He was still prime minister after a decade in office, and it seemed inevitable that he would remain that way after the election set for March of that year. Every poll indicated a clear-cut right-wing majority in the Knesset. There had never been two elections in a row without any government formed in between, let alone three.

The campaign was simpler, as well. There was no global pandemic or Russian invasion of Ukraine and subsequent supply chain disruptions and inflation messing up the economy. Netanyahu could campaign as Mr. Security, as always, and this time, he had a not-so-secret weapon, then-president of the US Donald Trump. After all, Netanyahu and Trump made sure everyone knew that they were best buddies; no Israeli prime minister had ever worked so closely with a US president, and no president had ever been so pro-Israel, was the message.

As such, Trump featured prominently in the Likud campaign. He was with Netanyahu on billboards in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, proclaiming that the latter is in “another league.” He was featured in Likud campaign videos, as well, declaring US recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital.

Fast-forward to 2022. Israel is on the way to a fifth election in less than four years. Netanyahu is no longer running from the position of strength in the Prime Minister’s Residence on Jerusalem’s Balfour Street. Israel’s economy is doing relatively well compared to others in the OECD, but it has been bruised by the pandemic and war in Ukraine, and prices are sharply rising.

And the honeymoon with Trump is long over.

With former senior adviser to the US president Jared Kushner strategically distributing unflattering excerpts from his highly anticipated Breaking History: A White House Memoir to the media, it is no longer clear whether Trump is an asset or a hindrance to Netanyahu.

For nearly a year, it seemed that the Netanyahu-Trump bromance was over because Netanyahu congratulated President Joe Biden on his election win in 2020. That was the reason Trump said “f*** him” to Israeli journalist Barak Ravid; Trump falsely claimed Netanyahu was one of the first to celebrate Biden’s win, and made it clear he felt personally betrayed.

That was easily excusable from Netanyahu’s end. Netanyahu waited until the morning after the election was called for Biden, facing criticism from some of the Israeli media for the delay. And the US-Israel relationship is too important to snub the president, even if it was clear to all that Netanyahu would have liked Trump to win.

But now the story is not about Trump’s election denial and bruised ego; it’s about strategic decisions relating to Israel’s future, its security and its strategic alliance with the US.

Trump, Netanyahu, annexation and Palestinians

Trump presented his peace plan on January 28, 2020. In brief, the plan included Israel extending its sovereignty – annexation – over the parts of the West Bank in which Israelis already live, plus the entire Jordan Valley, which would serve as a security buffer. The rest would be reserved for the Palestinians, which would have a four-year period to develop into a democratic society before the US would support statehood.

Netanyahu announced in his speech in the White House that Trump “became the first world leader to recognize Israel’s sovereignty over areas in Judea and Samaria” and that “Israel will apply its laws to the Jordan Valley, [and] to all the Jewish communities in Judea and Samaria.”

This angered Trump and Kushner, who expected Israel to annex only along with steps advancing Palestinian statehood. Trump also said he felt “dirty” because “Bibi gave a campaign speech,” Kushner wrote.

In the ensuing hours, Netanyahu’s spokesman tweeted that they would annex the relevant parts of the West Bank within days, and Netanyahu and then-ambassador to the US Ron Dermer confirmed that to the Israeli press gathered at Blair House. The US ambassador to Israel at the time, David Friedman, said Israel can start work toward annexation the moment it completes its internal process, which, together with the statements from Netanyahu’s side, was taken to mean a cabinet vote five days later.

“As it turned out, Friedman had assured Bibi that he would get the White House to support annexation more immediately. He had not conveyed this to me or anyone on my team,” Kushner wrote.

“As it turned out, Friedman had assured Bibi that he would get the White House to support annexation more immediately. He had not conveyed this to me or anyone on my team.”

Jared Kushner

Friedman described a “difficult and unpleasant meeting” with Kushner and Netanyahu in his book, Sledgehammer, released earlier this year. Kushner said a joint US-Israeli committee has to map out the territory first. Netanyahu said the Jordan Valley didn’t need more mapping. Kushner said “we never discussed that.”

“Everyone was telling the truth,” Friedman wrote.

Friedman and Netanyahu walked back their earlier statements, but days later, Trump was still “fuming” and considered endorsing now-Defense Minister Benny Gantz, Kushner wrote.

When Netanyahu and Dermer pushed to rush annexation, Kushner said, he gave the ambassador the following speech: “Don’t take us for granted. We worked our asses off for three years to get to this point. For the first time, Israel has the moral high ground. You’re offering the Palestinians a state and a map that Arab countries actually support as a starting point for negotiations. But now it’s all screwed up. You guys think you have been so effective with this administration. I hate to break the reality to you, but we didn’t do any of these things because you convinced us to. We did them because we believe they were the right things to do.”

“Don’t take us for granted. We worked our asses off for three years to get to this point. For the first time, Israel has the moral high ground. You’re offering the Palestinians a state and a map that Arab countries actually support as a starting point for negotiations. But now it’s all screwed up. You guys think you have been so effective with this administration. I hate to break the reality to you, but we didn’t do any of these things because you convinced us to. We did them because we believe they were the right things to do.”

Jared Kushner

Once the mapping process was completed, Kushner and then-special representative for international negotiations Avi Berkowitz would not give Netanyahu the green light to proceed with sovereignty moves, because the prime minister would not offer any concessions to the Palestinians. Friedman wrote of Netanyahu agreeing to a moratorium on Israeli construction in the areas of the West Bank that were not within the sovereignty map, but Kushner seems to have thought so little of that idea that he did not even mention it in his nearly 500-page book.

Kushner and Berkowitz were so frustrated and so concerned that Netanyahu might unilaterally declare annexation that they said they would not protect Israel from the inevitable backlash, threatening that “there was no guarantee that our administration would block the international sanctions against Israel that might follow.”

The book also describes Netanyahu as being difficult in the Abraham Accords process. Netanyahu twice almost gave up on the accords.

At one point, Netanyahu said he would drop annexation plans only if three Arab countries normalized ties with Israel.

“Remind him that he doesn’t have annexation without us,” Kushner said.

Another time, Netanyahu almost called off the Abraham Accords because a bill banning someone indicted of crimes from becoming prime minister was heading to a vote to the Knesset, and he was ready to call an election to stop it from becoming law.

“I know Bibi will put what’s best for Israel before his political situation,” Kushner said he hold Dermer. “We’ve come too far; we’re so close. This deal is happening.”

Trump and Netanyahu: A far less rosy picture in reality

ALL OF this adds up to a much less rosy picture than what Netanyahu would like of his relationship with Trump, who was exceedingly popular in Israel during his presidency – though there have not been polls since Trump left office.

Netanyahu sent a response to The Jerusalem Post on Thursday unequivocally denying that he surprised Kushner and Trump by announcing that he planned to extend Israeli sovereignty to 30% of Judea and Samaria.

Trump and Netanyahu exchanged letters, Netanyahu said via a spokesman. Trump’s letter said the US would support a declaration of sovereignty, and Netanyahu’s response said he would move forward with that declaration “in the coming days.” The spokesman would not provide copies of the letters.

The spokesman also pointed out that Trump said in his speech that the US and Israel “will form a joint committee with Israel to convert the conceptual map into a more detailed and calibrated rendering so that recognition can be immediately achieved” (emphasis added).

Trump also said that “the United States will recognize Israeli sovereignty over the territory that my vision provides to be part of the State of Israel. Very important.”

Netanyahu’s denial is interesting not only for the factual record, but because it indicates that he is likely to continue to maintain that he and Trump have a good relationship.

It seems the prime minister will not adopt his Obama-era tactic of saying that he is tough enough to stand up even to Israel’s most important ally if he needs to. When it comes to Trump, he could theoretically add that he is willing to go head-to-head even with the president that he worked with best to eke out an advantage for Israel.

Instead, Netanyahu is saying that he and Trump were, in fact, in sync. And that is wise, since Trump is still considering a 2024 run, which means he and Netanyahu can overlap as leaders of their respective countries again, plus Netanyahu’s base probably still likes the former president.

Still, the Netanyahu-Trump lovefest balloon has been dramatically punctured. The Likud campaign will find other ways to say Netanyahu is in “another league” without splashing his face next to Trump’s across tall buildings before the election in November. •

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