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Irrigation of Water by Automatic Sprinkler System

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Retraction
Retraction: Irrigation of Water by Automatic Sprinkler
System (IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 1145 012107)
Published 23 February 2022
This article (and all articles in the proceedings volume relating to the same conference) has been
retracted by IOP Publishing following an extensive investigation in line with the COPE guidelines.
This investigation has uncovered evidence of systematic manipulation of the publication process and
considerable citation manipulation.
IOP Publishing respectfully requests that readers consider all work within this volume potentially
unreliable, as the volume has not been through a credible peer review process.
IOP Publishing regrets that our usual quality checks did not identify these issues before publication,
and have since put additional measures in place to try to prevent these issues from reoccurring. IOP
Publishing wishes to credit anonymous whistleblowers and the Problematic Paper Screener [1] for
bringing some of the above issues to our attention, prompting us to investigate further.
[1] Cabanac G, Labbé C and Magazinov A 2021 arXiv:2107.06751v1
Retraction published: 23 February 2022
Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution
of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.
Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd
Content from this work may be used under the terms of theCreative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution
of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.
Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd
ICCMES 2021
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1145 (2021) 012107
IOP Publishing
doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1145/1/012107
1
Irrigation of Water by Automatic Sprinkler System
R Nelson1
, U Sankar2
, E G Ramanathan2
, V Sankar Prasanth2 and A Sherwin
Daniel2
1Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Krishna College of
Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Krishna College of Technology,
Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu
[email protected]
Abstract. In all agricultural seasons, an automatic irrigation system has been designed to
facilitate the automated provide of adequate water from a reservoir to field or domestic crops.
One of the goals of this research is to determine how human control can be removed from
irrigation while also optimising water use in the process. The method used is to continuously
monitor the soil moisture level in order to determine whether irrigation is required and how much
water is required in the soil. Various types of sprinkler irrigation systems were studied in this
study, along with their design, construction, and installation. The planning was aided by the use
of a rotating system to irrigate a small plot, which provides a suitable scientific basis for correct
water scheduling, system evaluation, and minimising water waste and runoff. It was intended for
a variety of crops. The significance of the design and installation is to provide the University’s
irrigation research Field with irrigation field demonstration practise facilities that can be used.
Key Words: Agricultural, Crops, Construction, Design, Irrigation, sprinkler.

  1. Introduction
    Irrigation may be a perfect methodology for distributing water to soil that strengthens the crops in the
    field. Irrigation is employed to complement the water on the market from downfall, field soil wetness.
    Quantity of downfall on the market in several components of the globe is light to satisfy crop wetness
    necessities [1]. As a result, adequate irrigation provision is important for sure-fire crop production. The
    job of irrigation system is often classified into indirect and direct advantages [2].
    The most direct advantage includes an increase in crop production by higher yield to achieve food
    self-sufficiency, cultivation of crops, land value appreciation that makes land holders more wealthier
    and domestic water distribution system to towns and villages [3]. Sprinkler irrigation is a significant
    advancement over traditional surface irrigation[4]. This promotes natural rainfall therefore by
    distributing water in rainy form over the land surface while needed in the essential pattern and in
    required quantity.
    The water should be distributed in an amount determined by the soil’s infiltration level in order to
    avoid runoff from irrigation [5]. This type of Sprinkler irrigation systems is ideal for undulating terrain,
    an insufficient of available water, shallow soils and where uniform water distribution is required [6].
    To optimise the use of water for agricultural crops, a proper automated irrigation system must be
    developed [7]. A proper automatic irrigation system must include all the components that auto
    Retracted
    matically
    ICCMES 2021
    IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1145 (2021) 012107
    IOP Publishing
    doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1145/1/012107
    2
    monitors and controls the amount of water to be distributed to the plants without the need for human
    interference or failure [8].
    How the system functions
    • Constantly assess the quantity of water needed to plants (this is monitored using a sensor system).
    • By the data collected from observing the water content in the soil, it can able to determine if the plants
    require watering.
    • Provide the adequate amount of water required to the plants. This gets improved based on how good
    it meets the requirements.
    • Turn off the supply of water once the necessary amount of water has been delivered to the plants.
  2. System Design
    The work is divided into four subsystems that comprise the automatic irrigation control system: supply
    of paper, a control unit, sensing unit, and pumping systems. A soil moisture sensor is built in order to
    note the soil’s electrical resistance. A 12V power supplying unit is built in order to provide enough
    power to the system [9]. An operational amplifier and timer were used to implement the control circuit;
    and a pumping subsystem which has a submersible micro water pump with less noise was built using a
    DC-operated motor [10]. Figure 1 shows the system design.
    Figure 1. System design
  3. Working
    This automated system of irrigation is fabricated to constantly monitor the moisture level of soil. This
    system works accurately by supplying required amount of water to the soil and shutting off the supply
    of water when the necessary soil moisture rate is reached [11]. Corrosion resistant materials are used in
    fabricating soil moisture sensors and can be embedded in soil samples [12]. The resistance between the
    moisture detectors is measured and making it to match with the output voltages of the comparator circuit,
    computations are made of the voltages according to the dry and wet states of the soil [13].
    The amount of water needed for the irrigation per unit time was calculated by taking the water pump’s
    capacity and the water sprinkler’s capacity into account [14]. The time needed for irrigation was
    calculated by taking the water pump’s response time and the volume of water needed per irrigation into
    account. A proper timing circuit was also designed to guide the duration time of each irrigation
    occurrence using the required irrigation time
    Retracted
    [15].
    ICCMES 2021
    IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1145 (2021) 012107
    IOP Publishing
    doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1145/1/012107
    3
  4. System Components
    The Control circuit consists of Bread Board, jump wires, relay module, resistors and high rated diode.
    The sensing circuit consists of Arduino UNO and Soil moisture sensor and also a pump, a DC motor
    and Water sprinkler [16-22].
    4.1.Bread Board
    Specifications
    ❖ Dimensions: “3.28 x 2.14 x 0.32”
    ❖ Breadboard: 400 coloured points
    ❖ Material-Plastic
    Figure 2 shows the bread board.
    Figure 2. Bread board
    4.2. Jumper Wires:
    Specifications
    ❖ 40-pin ribbon cable jumper wires.
    ❖ 0.1″ sockets on any one of the ends and fits on standard-pitch 0.1″
    ❖ Wire: 28 AWG (36 AWG if 7strands)
    Figure 3 shows the Jumper wires.
    Figure 3. Jumper wires
    4.3.Resistor
    Specifications
    ❖ Conformal coated
    ❖ Epoxy coated
    ❖ Controlled temperature coefficient
    ❖ High frequency
    ❖ Low noise: typically 0.10 μ V/V
    ❖ Low voltage coefficient upto ± 5 ppm/V
    Figure 4 shows the resistor.
    Retracted
    ICCMES 2021
    IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1145 (2021) 012107
    IOP Publishing
    doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1145/1/012107
    4
    Figure 4. Resistor
    4.4.Diode
    Figure 5. Diode
    Specifications
    ❖ Case: Moulded
    ❖ Weight: 0.4 g(appx)
    ❖ Finish: Corrosion Resistant and Readily Solderable
    ❖ Polarity: Polarity Band indicated cathode
    Figure 5 shows the diode and Figure 6 shows the Arduino.
    4.5. Arduino
    Figure 6. Arduino
    4.6. Soil Moisture Sensor
    Type of battery: CR2450 x 1
    3 years of battery life (typical)
    Range of sight: 700 feet (210 metres) (at default setting.)
    100 percent moisture, 8-bit
    -40°C to 85°C temperature range
    Typical sensor accuracy is +/-1°C, with a limit of -2/+4°C.
    10-bit sensor quantization level (resolution), 0.25°C (0.45°F)
    Figure 7 and Figure 8 shows the
    Retracted
    Soil moisture sensor and DC Motor
    ICCMES 2021
    IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1145 (2021) 012107
    IOP Publishing
    doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1145/1/012107
    5
    Figure 7. Soil moisture sensor
    4.7.Dc Motor
    ● DC motor: 130 Type
    ● Voltage (4.6V to 9V).
    ● Recommended Voltage: 6V.
    ●Current with zero load: 70mA (max)
    ●Speed with zero load: 9000 rpm.
    ● Loaded current: 250mA (appx)
    ● Rated amount of Load: 10g*cm.
    ● Dimensions of the motor: 27.5mm x 20mm x 15mm
    Figure 8. DC Motor
  5. Calculations
    Table 1 and Table 2 shows the calculations of Spray Head Flow and Lawn Watering Times
    Table 1: Spray Head Flow
    Spray Head Flow – Avearge Gallons Per Minute(Gpm)
    Spray 1quarte 1third 1half( 2thirds 3quarter Ful
    Head R(1/4) (1/3) 1/2) (2/3) S(3/4) L
    Arc Circ
    90° Arc 120° 180° 240° Arc 270° Arc
    Cover Le
    Arc Arc
    Age
    360°
    Retracted
    Arc
    ICCMES 2021
    IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1145 (2021) 012107
    IOP Publishing
    doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1145/1/012107
    6
    5’ 0.10 0.12 0.21 0.25 0.29 0.39
    Radius
    8’ 0.25 0.31 0.50 0.70 0.76 1.02
    Radius
    10’ 0.40 0.55 0.80 0.97 1.04 1.60
    Radius
    12’ 0.80 1.23 1.60 1.78 2.50
    Radius
    0.61
    15’ 0.91 1.20 1.80 2.34 2.75 3.70
    Numbers Are Based On Average Of 3 Top Brand Spray Heads And At An Optimum Water Pressure
    30kpa.Variation Will Occur With Various Brand And At Different Water
    Pressure.
    Table 2: Lawn Watering Times
    LAWN WATERING TIMES
    (FOR LAWNS BASED ON WATERING THREE DAYS PER WEEK)
    MINUTES TO WATER PER ZONE
    WATERING
    MONTHS
    FIXED
    SPRAY
    HEADS
    ROTOR
    HEADS
    ROTARY
    NOZZLES
    MANUAL
    SPRINKLERS
    JANUARYAPRIL
    WATER TREES/SHRUBS AS NEEDED
    MAY 12 24 30 18
    JUNE 17 35 43 26
    JULY 18 36 45 27
    AUGUST 14 27 34 20
    SEPTEMBER 11 23 28 17
    OCTOBER-DECEMBER WATER TRESS/SHRUBS AS NEEDED
    THESE TIMES ARE BASED ON A SPRINKLER SYSTEM RUNNING AT AN EFFICIENT LEVEL.
    Retracted
    ICCMES 2021
    IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1145 (2021) 012107
    IOP Publishing
    doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1145/1/012107
    7
    Figure 9. Sprinkler and Sensor Readings
  6. Result
    With the same soil test, irrigation becomes precise, realistic, and simple. By this concept agriculture can
    be taken to the new and futuristic level. The water and quantity contents are not a normal output from
    moisture sensors, and the levelling system plays a vital role in deciding the quantity and volumetric
    water contents. Involvement in the development of the final product, the resistance of soil between the
    positive supply and non-inverting supply inputs is relatively high, which results in a lower positive
    supply to the non-inverting input which is higher than the inverting input, resulting in a logic low
    comparator performance when the soil is dry.
    This is the order that Arduino receives. In this case, the microcontroller sends a logic high signal,
    which activates a relay driver transistor and turning on the pumping motor. As a result, water flow
    begins. The soil resistance decreases as the soil becomes sufficiently wet, allowing an available voltage
    to the non-inverting input resulting in a comparator’s output that is high logic and provided to the
    microcontroller. In this case, the microcontroller sends a low logic signal to transistor which switches
    off the relay and turns on the motor pump
  7. Conclusion
    A proper algorithmic proposal in designing a sensor-based controller system for measuring several
    critical parameters for a plant culture such as moisture of the soil, humidity, intensity of the light, and
    temperature are under consideration. The final result of the evaluations after the parameter values have
    been sensed must be definitive and precise. The framework must prevent many of the flaws found in
    current systems by carefully managing complexity while still offering a versatile means of preserving
    the environment. The aim is to keep hardware and software costs as low as possible.
    This hardware and software cost reduction will increase the use of electronic systems in agriculture
    that paves the growth of the agricultural industries in many areas thereby increasing the rate of quality
    and quantity of the production. By using required technologies and components several similar systems
    can be developed.
    Retracted
    ICCMES 2021
    IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1145 (2021) 012107
    IOP Publishing
    doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1145/1/012107
    8
    References
    [1] Arshad ali , International journal of advanced and applied sciences , Internet Of Things
    embedded smart sensors system for agriculture and farm management, 7 (10), pp 38-45, 2020
    [2] Ms.Darshana chaware, IJERT, Sensor based automated irrigation system. 04, (2015)
    [3] Jose cavero , agronomy journal ,Relevance of sprinkler irrigation time and water losses in
    maize yield. 105(3), p 827, 2013
    [4] Glande et al, journal on automatic sprinkler irrigation system, 2007.
    [5] Swarup et al, Effect of continuous sodic irrigation water, 73(2), pp 111-118,2005
    [6] Saleemmaleek, Design and implementation of solar powered automatic irrigation system, IEEE
    International conference,2013.
    [7] Prathyusha et al, international journal of computer science engineering and applications, 3(4),
    pp 75-80,2013.
    [8] Cosmin et al, International conference of advance research and innovation,2012 .
    [9] Yetharaj et al, Method of water irrigation and water productivity, international journal on
    research and innovation,2012.
    [10] Haldorai, A. Ramu, and S. Murugan, Social Aware Cognitive Radio Networks, Social Network
    Analytics for Contemporary Business Organizations, pp. 188–202. doi:10.4018/978-1-5225-
    5097-6.ch010
    [11] R. Arulmurugan and H. Anandakumar, Region-based seed point cell segmentation and detection
    for biomedical image analysis, International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and
    Technology, vol. 27, no. 4, p. 273, 2018.
    [12] Pranit et al , International conference of advance research and innovation,2014.
    [13] Udupa et al, Using arduino board for automatic pulse irrigation system, misr journal of
    agricultural engineering,2015.
    [14] Kiran kumar et al, different irrigation water sources in a typical black soil, an asian journal of
    soil science 10(1), pp 154-157,2015.
    [15] Mamta et al, Journal of applied and natural science, 7(2), pp 1070-80, 2015.
    [16] Suraj et al, Effects of waste water on the soil and irrigation process, Journal of geographical
    studies, 1(1), pp 46-55,2015.
    [17] Rayala et al, Study on automated irrigation system process, 2015.
    [18] Archana and Priya et al, automatic water conserving irrigation system, (IJCSIT) International
    journal,2016.
    [19] SonaliD.Gainwar and Dinesh V. Rojatkar et al, International Research journal of engineering
    and technology (IRJET),2015.
    [20] R.Balaji and M.Sudha et al, International journal of innovative technology and exploring
    engineering (IJITEE),2016.
    [21] S.Reshma and B.A.Sarath, IOT based Automatic irrigation system ,International journal,2016.
    [22] Joaquin Gutierrez, Automated Irrigation systems using a wireless sensor network and GPRS
    module , IEEE transactions on instrumentation and measurement,2013.
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Is DuckDuckGo Safe? Your Comprehensive Privacy Guide

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Is DuckDuckGo Safe? Your Comprehensive Privacy Guide

Explore the safety and privacy features of DuckDuckGo with this comprehensive guide. Learn how DuckDuckGo protects your online activities and keeps your information secure. Discover why DuckDuckGo is a trustworthy option for privacy-conscious users.

Introduction

In an age where online privacy is paramount, users are constantly seeking secure and private alternatives to traditional search engines. DuckDuckGo, a privacy-focused search engine, has gained significant attention for its commitment to user confidentiality. This article delves deep into the question: “Is DuckDuckGo safe?” We’ll explore the features that make DuckDuckGo a reliable choice for safeguarding your online activities.

Is DuckDuckGo Safe?

DuckDuckGo is a secure and private search engine that emphasizes protecting users’ personal information and search history. It employs several features to ensure your online activities remain confidential and shielded from prying eyes.

Privacy Protection Mechanisms

DuckDuckGo employs a range of privacy protection mechanisms to keep your information safe:

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Search Result Quality

Despite its strong emphasis on privacy, DuckDuck-Go provides high-quality search results using its unique search algorithm. The search engine utilizes aggregated data from various sources, including Bing and Wikipedia, to deliver relevant results without compromising your privacy.

How Does DuckDuck-Go Ensure Safety?

DuckDuck-Go implements several measures to ensure safety while using its services:

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Can I use DuckDuck-Go as my default search engine?

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How does DuckDuck-Go generate revenue if it doesn’t track users?

DuckDuck-Go generates revenue through advertising that is not based on user data. Instead, ads are contextually relevant to the search terms, ensuring privacy.

Is my personal information safe with DuckDuck-Go’s browser extension?

Yes, DuckDuck-Go’s browser extension enhances your online security by blocking trackers and encrypting connections, ensuring your personal information remains safe.

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Exploring Alternative Sentencing Options: Understanding the Potential for No Jail Time in 2nd Offense DWI Cases in Texas:

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Exploring Alternative Sentencing Options: Understanding the Potential for No Jail Time in 2nd Offense DWI Cases in Texas:

While Texas has some of the most drunk drivers in the country, the state also has some of the strictest DWI penalties. Despite how common a Texas DWI and 2nd DWI can be (with over 30% of DWI convicts reoffending), a 2nd DWI conviction will land you at least 72 hours in county jail and possibly even a year. Although many will agree that the punishment fits the crime, a 2nd DWI charge can be a telltale sign of alcohol addiction, and can often require rehabilitation that a jail sentence cannot offer. Luckily enough, there are several ways you can avoid a conviction for a 2nd DWI in Texas to receive no jail time and focus on your rehabilitation.

An Expert DWI Attorney:

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DWI Court:

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Plea Bargain:

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Don’t Drink and Drive:

72 hours in jail is considered the mandatory minimum sentence for a 2nd DWI conviction and those facing charges are unlikely to see no jail time. The only guaranteed way to avoid jail is to avoid drinking and driving. With a drunk driving fatality occurring every 8.5 hours in Texas and over 10% of Texans reporting involvement in a drunk driving crash sometime in their lives, don’t fall under the impression that you are immune to the consequences of a DWI. Always make sure that you have a designated driver or extra money for an Uber when you go out drinking, it can save someone’s life and protect your future.

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