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Automatic Fire Hydrating System



ABSTRACT : Automatic fire-fighting systems are installed in buildings and rooms where the fire hazard is

comparatively high. This paper deals with the design and implementation of a firefighting system based on a

Microcontroller. The system implements an early fire detection mechanism, and communicates with its owners

wirelessly over GSM networks. It should also be capable of putting out fire by means of a firefighting pump, and

to justify the status of the indicator panel that provides visual feedback of the current status of the monitored

environment at any given time . According to the methodology, the Wireless Firefighting System uses

temperature sensors to monitor its surrounding environment and alert the system owner in case it detects smoke,

fire or that the temperature has gone outside the normal parameters. The sensor signals are fed to, and

processed by (ATmega32) microcontroller program by BASCOM language which polls the sensors to monitor

environment and shows its status on LED status indicator panel. The ATmega32 also connects to SIM900

GSM/GPRS module which enables the system to communicate their owners over long distances and notify them

the status of their protected environment. The system has a firefighting pump on standby to operate in case fire

has been detected through flaming sensors.

KEYWORDS : fire-fighting system , Bascom , GSM system , LED ,ATmega 32 .


Fire fighting System is used to prevent, extinguish, localize, or block fires in enclosed spaces.

Automatic fire-fighting systems are installed in buildings and rooms where the fire hazard is comparatively

high. A distinction is made between systems that are actuated automatically and operate according to a

predetermined program and those that are actuated by an operator; the former are called automatic fire

protection systems, the latter fire protection units. An automatic fire-fighting system includes a sensor capable

of detecting combustion, alarm signaling devices, fire-extinguishing equipment, starting and stopping devices,

and feeders for the fire-extinguishing substance. Atomizers, foam generators, and pipe nozzles form and direct

the stream of the fire-extinguishing substance, which may be a liquid, foam, powder, or gas. Fire-extinguishing

substances are fed into the system from a centralized supply, such as a water supply, or from self-contained or

combined feeders.The most widely used systems employ water (sprinkler and drencher systems), carbon

dioxide, aerosols, or powders. A sprinkler system consists of a grid of pipelines located on the ceiling of the

room, with sprinkler heads attached to the pipes by threaded connections. The opening of a sprinkler is kept

closed by a disk held in a closed position by a thermal lock. If the room temperature rises to a specified point,

the lock is destroyed and the disk opens, admitting water to the room.

Drencher systems, which use nozzles without thermal locks, are actuated either by a sprinkler installed

in a trigger air line or by a cable-type thermal lock. Automatic fire protection systems are classified according to

the time elapsed between the start of the fire and the actuation of the system as ultrahigh-speed (to 0.1 second),

high-speed (to 3 seconds), and standard (to 180 second). The fire-extinguishing substance can be applied for

periods ranging from 30 second to 3600 second .


The system is divided into parts; hardware and software. In the hardware, a large and complex sensor

circuitry is to be designed to develop system awareness and capability to detect over-temperature, smoke and

flame. A microcontroller (ATmega 32) is used to process the various sensor signals and control the system

actuators accordingly. A firefighting pump will be interfaced to the microcontroller through a relay, and a GSM

module (SIM900) will be interconnected to the system and used to send SMS indicating the system and

environment status.A software code is developed to control the overall system functions. The code is written in

BASIC language using Basic Compiler for AVR (BASCOM-AVR).

Automatic Fire Fighting…

International organization of Scientific Research 65 | P a g e


The block diagram of the hardware implementation of the entire system is shown in Figure (1).The aim

of the design is to illustrate the usage of the fire fighter and its applications and the minimum equipment

required to construct the fire fighting system is a microcontroller, pump water, smoke sensor, temperature

sensor, flame sensor, led’s, GSM modem.

Figure (1) Block diagram of the wireless fire fighting system

The input system consists of three sensors. The mechanism of the system operation is based on

equations (1) to (7);

temperature alarm = (temperature sensor)ON..… …………… (1)

flame alarm = (flame sensor)ON ..……………………………..……… (2)

smoke alarm = (smoke sensor)ON ….………………………………… (3)

temperature-flame alarm= [(temperature sensor)ON AND

(flame sensor)ON] ………… (4)

temperature-smoke alarm= [(temperature sensor)ON AND

(smoke sensor)ON] ………… (5)

flame-smoke alarm= [(flame sensor)ON AND

(smoke sensor)ON] ………… (6)

temperature-flame-smoke fire = [(temperature sensor)ON AND

(flame sensor)ON AND (smoke sensor)ON ] ………… (7)

The hardware components are :

Smoke Sensor : A smoke detector is a device that detects smoke, typically as an indicator of fire. Commercial,

industrial, and mass residential devices issue a signal to a fire alarm system, while household detectors, known

as smoke alarms, generallyissue a local audible or visual alarm from the detector itself. Smoke detectors are

typically housed in a disk-shaped plastic enclosure Most smoke detectors work either by optical detection

(photoelectric) or by physical process (ionization), while others use both detection methods to increase

sensitivity to smoke. Sensitive alarms can be used to detect, and thus deter, smoking in areas where it is banned

such as toilets and schools. Smoke detectors in large commercial, industrial, and residential buildings are

usually powered by a central fire alarm system, which is powered by the building power with a battery backup.

However, in many single family detached and smaller multiple family housings, a smoke alarm is often powered

only by a single disposable battery .

LM35 Temperature Sensor : These sensors use a solid-state technique to determine the temperature.. They use

the fact as temperature increases, the voltage across adiode increases at a known rate. (Technically, this is

actually the voltage drop between the base and emitter – the Vbe – of a transistor). By precisely amplifying the



Relay and

Water pump














Automatic Fire Fighting…

International organization of Scientific Research 66 | P a g e

voltage change, it is easy to generate an analog signal that is directly proportional to temperature. There have

been some improvements on the technique but, essentially that is how temperature is measured. Because these

sensors have no moving parts, theyare precise, never wear out, don’t need calibration, work under many

environmental conditions, and are consistent between sensors and readings. Moreover they are easy to use .

Flame Sensor : This Flame Sensor can be used to detect fire source or other light sources of the wave length in

the range of 760nm – 1100 nm. It is based on the YG1006 sensor which is a high speed and high sensitive NPN

silicon phototransistor. Due to its black epoxy, the sensor is sensitive to infrared radiation.

Microcontroller: It is the heart of the system which controls all the activities of transmitting and receiving. A

microcontroller (also MCU or µC) is a functional computer system-on-achip. It contains a processor core,

memory, and programmable input/output peripherals.Microcontrollers include an integrated CPU, memory (a

small amount of RAM, program memory, or both) and peripherals capable of input and output. The IC used is

ATmega 32. It is an 8-bit microcontroller with 32 Kbytes of In-System Programming Flash Memory.The device

is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry

standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be or programmed

in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. BASCOM_AVR programmers Notepad

is used. The code after compilation generates ‘.hex’ file which is a hardware level code.

Relay : A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a witching

mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to

control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled


Pump water: Pump is a device used to move fluids (liquids or gases) or sometimes slurries by mechanical

action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid

direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps.

Pumps must havea mechanism which operates them, and consume energyto perform mechanical work by

moving the fluid. The activating mechanism is often reciprocating or rotary.

Light Emitting Diode (LED) : A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source that

resembles a basic pn-junction diode, except that an LED also emits light. When an LED’s anode lead has a

voltage that is more positive than its cathode lead by at least the LED’s forward voltage drop, current flows.

Electrons are able to recombine with holeswithin the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This

effect is called electroluminescence, and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is

determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor.

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) : GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications), is a

standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). It is controlled via AT

commands. Figure (2) illustrates the GSM modem.

Figure (2) GSM Modem

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International organization of Scientific Research 67 | P a g e

Siren : It is used to generate alarm sound whenever any of the sensors become active.


The microcontroller algorithm is based on performing the following steps :

 Polling the sensors .

 If the temperature sensor gives high reading , it is an indication of possible fire. .

 If the flame sensor gives abnormal reading , it is an indication of possible fire.

 If the smoke sensor gives a smoke alarm , it is an indication of possible fire.

 If the two sensors give abnormal readings , it is an indication of high possibility of fire.

 If the .three sensors gives abnormal readings , it is a definite indication of fire. .

Bascom programming language is used in programming the microcontroller The algorithm for the system is :


Initialization :

Put Relay OFF. (i,e. firefight pump is OFF).

Display GREEN LED ..

Poll the sensors:

If ( temperature > 50 ) , then call temperature subroutine..

If ( flame = ON ) , then call flame subroutine..

If ( smoke = ON ) , then call smoke subroutine..

If [( temperature > 50 ) AND ( flame = ON )] , then call temperature-flame subroutine..

If [( temperature > 50 ) AND ( smoke = ON )] , then call temperature-smoke subroutine..

If [( flame = ON ) AND ( smoke = ON )] , then call flame-smoke subroutine..

If [( temperature > 50 ) AND ( flame = ON ) AND ( smoke = ON )] , then call temperature-

flame-smoke subroutine..

Go to Poll the sensors.

Temperature :

… Put temperature LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 10 seconds.


Flame :

… Put flame LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 10 seconds.


Smoke :

… Put smoke LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 10 seconds.


Temperature-flame :

… Put temperature LED ON.

… Put flame LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 20 seconds.


temperature-smoke :

… Put temperature LED ON.

… Put smoke LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 210 seconds.


flame-smoke :

… Put flame LED ON.

… Put smoke LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 20 seconds.


Temperature-flame-smoke :

… Put temperature LED ON.

… Put flame LED ON.

… Put smoke LED ON.

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International organization of Scientific Research 68 | P a g e

… Activate the relay.

…. Activate siren for 30 seconds.



The system performs two types of tasks. The first type is that the system gives alarm for a possible fire

occurrence The second type is the automatic fire fighting task when the system assures the fire occurrence

.Table (1) below shows the results when operating the system .The table indicates the action taken for each


Table (1) The results when operating the system

Temp. sensor

Flame sensor

Smoke sensor






Temp. ON

Siren ON (10s.)




Flame ON

Siren ON (10s.)




Smoke ON

Siren ON (10s


Siren ON (20s.)





Siren ON (20s.)





Siren ON (20s.)




Temp+flame+ smoke


Siren ON (20s.) +

Relay ON

NOTE : Logic 1 = sensor is activated , Logic 0 = sensor is idle (not activated).


The circuit that enabled the firefighting system to detect and deal with over-temperature, smoke and

flame was designed, developed and tested. The Wireless firefighting System has successfully completed the

tasks as expected .The system is capable of indicating its status on LED indicator panel, detecting and putting

out fire. It’s also capable of communicating over GSM network through SMS. The ATmega32 microcontroller

is used to process the sensor circuitry input and control the indicator panel, and interface the system to GSM

network to enable wireless communication. It is also used to control a firefighting pump to put out flames when

detected. A model of the system is constructed and its operation is satisfactory.




Systems/Pub141_FireFighting, [3],accessed 05/04/2014.

[4] Steven Steven Frank Barrett, Daniel J. Pack, “Atmel AVR Microcontroller Primer: Programming and Interfacing”, Morgan &

Claypool Publishers, 2008



[7] h ttp://,

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The Best Recommended Resorts in Nusa Dua Bali



The Best Recommended Resorts in Nusa Dua Bali

Nusa Dua is one of Bali’s areas built specifically for tourism in the 1970s. Since then, many luxury hotels and resorts were built everywhere in the Nusa Dua area. For those who want an exciting vacation with family or friends, there are many choices for the bali resort nusa dua .

These accommodations have luxurious facilities ranging from spas, private swimming pools, restaurants, and many more. All resorts in Nusa Dua also have sparkling white sand and calm waves as their view. What are the recommendations for the best resorts in Nusa Dua?

Best Resort Recommendations in Nusa Dua Bali

1. Laguna Resort & Spa

Staying at Laguna Resort & Spa will make you feel very comfortable. When entering the resort, you will be greeted with the sound of a gong and dancers in traditional costumes showing off their artistic talents. Laguna Resort & Spa also provides spacious rooms with large beds and luxurious bathrooms. 

Each room has a tropical garden interspersed with a lagoon pool. This resort also has gym facilities, a spa, and a sumptuous breakfast. There is also a beach bar if you want a cocktail. If you want to stay in a place that offers luxurious facilities and emphasizes local culture, pay a visit to Laguna Resort & Spa. The lodging at this resort is also not so expensive compared to other luxury hotels in Nusa Dua.

2. Resort St. Regis Bali

Located on the sand of Nusa Dua beach, St Regis is the next choice of resort for accommodation options. This resort has a traditional Balinese concept with olive green furnishings. Interestingly, you can swim in a vast lagoon from Resort St. Regis Bali, the size is three times the size of the Olympic swimming pool. 

Furthermore, this resort is also equipped with a thalassotherapy spa. Resort St. Regis Bali also provides a ‘Children’s Learning Center’ facility so parents who bring their children can leave them there. The Children’s Learning Center offers a curriculum to stimulate and entertain children while their parents enjoy the holidays.

3. Hilton Bali Resort

Hilton Bali Resort is perched on a cliff overlooking the beautiful Indian Ocean. You can see Nusa Lembongan clearly from this resort because of its location on a cliff. Hilton Bali Resort is facilitated with a family swimming pool with water slides, an outdoor playground that will make the kids happy, a spa, and a kids club. There are also gazebos and loungers on the private beach. At sunset, there is an observation tower that you and your family can visit to see the fantastic sunset views.

You can visit the lodging recommendations above for those traveling with their family and looking for the best resorts in Nusa Dua, Bali. All of them have extraordinary views with complete and luxurious facilities!

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4 Important Tips for Having a Vacation Abroad



4 Important Tips for Having a Vacation Abroad

Are you planning to go abroad but still don’t know what to prepare? People dream of going abroad, especially to countries like America and Europe. If this is your first time going abroad, you should check the following tips!

Prepare All Important Documents

The first thing you need to do is prepare important documents. For example, passports, ID cards, visas, and international driving licenses if you are going to drive abroad. Make sure you know whether the country you are going to visit is visa-free or not. For Southeast Asian countries, the Maldives and Turkey are visa-free, so you only have to have a passport. But a visa is still needed if you want to go to South Korea, Europe, or America. Make sure to scan your document and save it in the cloud like Google Drive or iCloud. Oh, yes, remember to check your vaccination status. Because every country needs your health information.

Make Itineraries

Itinerary is important for those who want to travel abroad. The reason is holidays abroad cost a lot of money, so when you can, take advantage of it with a well-planned schedule. Research in detail the tourist destinations you want to visit. For example, what is unique in it, ticket prices, transportation to get there, to the distance from the inn you’re staying. Remember to include places to eat that you want to try. Make sure the place to eat is according to your preferences, such as halal or free of certain food allergies.

Book Tickets in Advance

When you know how long you will be on vacation with the itinerary that has been prepared, it’s time to book plane tickets and lodging. Find cheap tickets by:

  1. Using promos and discounts on travel agent applications.
  2. Comparing which price is lower and what kind of facilities you will get.
  3. Choosing accommodation that fits your budget but is still comfortable.

Oh yes, also remember to check how the pandemic situation is in the country you are going to visit. Do you have to quarantine or not? Because it will affect your itinerary and accommodation. Due to the pandemic conditions that have not fully recovered, check whether there is still Indonesia quarantine after returning from vacation.

Exchange Money and Check Your ATM Cards

Exchange your currency into the destination country’s currency, for example, yen, euros, dollars, won, and others. But remember, don’t carry too much cash because it’s also prone to theft, besides being wasteful. For the rest, you can do cashless transactions. Check your bank’s ATM card to see if it has Visa, MasterCard, or Cirrus logos. This row of stamps indicates that your bank is working with banks abroad. Or you can also use a credit card to make your transaction easier.

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Down 43%, Is This Tech Stock Worth Buying Right Now?



Down 43%, Is This Tech Stock Worth Buying Right Now?

Skyworks Solutions (NASDAQ: SWKS) announced its fiscal 2022 fourth-quarter results (for the three months ended September 30) on November 3, and the supplier Apple’s stock price has risen 11% since then.

Skyworks beat expectations and showed solid growth at a time when smartphone sales were declining, but forecasts show the chipmaker is about to hit a bump. With that said, let’s take a closer look at the latest results from the chipmaker. Let’s take a closer look at whether the stock can sustain new momentum after losing 43% of its value in 2022.

Skyworks solutions deliver reliable results for non-mobile businesses
Skyworks’ fourth-quarter revenue increased 7% year-over-year to a record $1.4 billion. The company also reported non-GAAP (adjusted) earnings of $3.02 per share, up 15% year-over-year. Skyworks easily justified analyst estimates of $2.91 per share. For the year, the company’s revenue increased 7% to $5.5 billion and earnings rose similarly to $11.24 per share.

The strong growth of chipmakers in the fourth quarter was the result of successful diversification into new markets such as Internet of Things (IoT) and automotive, as well as relationships with major smartphone original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). Yes, it helped make up for it. Weakness in the smartphone market. space. However, it was the non-mobile business that put a lot of effort into Skyworks last quarter.
As CFO Chris Sennesael noted in the report, the company generated $500 million in revenue from broad market segments (counting chip sales for non-mobile applications like IoT), up 30% from the previous year. Last earnings conference call. Broad market companies contributed 36% of Skyworks’ revenue last quarter, up from 29% in the same period last year.

It’s also worth noting that Skyworks earned $2 billion in revenue from this segment for the entire fiscal year. That’s almost 43% more than the $1.4 billion in revenue last fiscal year. The good news is that the company’s business in a wide range of markets can maintain its momentum. This is because, as Skyworks showed in its earnings report, it is attracting new customers in high-growth niches like IoT.

“In IoT, we continue to win new customers and expand our content. We have partnered with Vodafone to launch the UK’s first WiFi 6E platform. We have launched a solution for Fi 6 hotspots.”

Skyworks also enables the deployment of O-RAN (Open Radio Access Network) and delivers record quarterly results in the high-growth automotive business niche. For example, the O-RAN market is expected to grow at an annual rate of 42% until 2030. Meanwhile, according to Mordor Intelligence, the demand for connected cars will grow by 19% per year until 2027.

These catalysts explain why Skyworks expects its broad commercial segment of the market “to be a major driver in FY23 and beyond.”

The mobile business was not in its best last quarter
Skyworks’ mobile business generated approximately $907 million in revenue last quarter (this is total revenue minus $500 million from the broader market business). By comparison, 71% of Skyworks’ $1.31 billion in revenue last year came from its mobile business, worth nearly $931 million.

Thus, the company’s mobile business, which generates most of its revenue, declined year-over-year in the most recent quarter. This is not surprising given that smartphone sales have been declining for the past five quarters. Skyworks considers Apple its biggest client, with the smartphone giant generating 58% of its revenue last year.

Last quarter, Apple shipped 48.5 million smartphones, 6.4% more than last year. However, the overall smartphone market was down 9% year-over-year. And now things could get even worse for Skyworks.

All of this explains why Skyworks management is targeting a sharp drop in sales and profits. The chipmaker expects revenue of $1.3 billion to $1.35 billion and adjusted earnings of $2.59 per share in the first quarter of fiscal 2023. These numbers show double-digit declines in both revenue and earnings compared to the last year.

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