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Automatic Fire Hydrating System



ABSTRACT : Automatic fire-fighting systems are installed in buildings and rooms where the fire hazard is

comparatively high. This paper deals with the design and implementation of a firefighting system based on a

Microcontroller. The system implements an early fire detection mechanism, and communicates with its owners

wirelessly over GSM networks. It should also be capable of putting out fire by means of a firefighting pump, and

to justify the status of the indicator panel that provides visual feedback of the current status of the monitored

environment at any given time . According to the methodology, the Wireless Firefighting System uses

temperature sensors to monitor its surrounding environment and alert the system owner in case it detects smoke,

fire or that the temperature has gone outside the normal parameters. The sensor signals are fed to, and

processed by (ATmega32) microcontroller program by BASCOM language which polls the sensors to monitor

environment and shows its status on LED status indicator panel. The ATmega32 also connects to SIM900

GSM/GPRS module which enables the system to communicate their owners over long distances and notify them

the status of their protected environment. The system has a firefighting pump on standby to operate in case fire

has been detected through flaming sensors.

KEYWORDS : fire-fighting system , Bascom , GSM system , LED ,ATmega 32 .


Fire fighting System is used to prevent, extinguish, localize, or block fires in enclosed spaces.

Automatic fire-fighting systems are installed in buildings and rooms where the fire hazard is comparatively

high. A distinction is made between systems that are actuated automatically and operate according to a

predetermined program and those that are actuated by an operator; the former are called automatic fire

protection systems, the latter fire protection units. An automatic fire-fighting system includes a sensor capable

of detecting combustion, alarm signaling devices, fire-extinguishing equipment, starting and stopping devices,

and feeders for the fire-extinguishing substance. Atomizers, foam generators, and pipe nozzles form and direct

the stream of the fire-extinguishing substance, which may be a liquid, foam, powder, or gas. Fire-extinguishing

substances are fed into the system from a centralized supply, such as a water supply, or from self-contained or

combined feeders.The most widely used systems employ water (sprinkler and drencher systems), carbon

dioxide, aerosols, or powders. A sprinkler system consists of a grid of pipelines located on the ceiling of the

room, with sprinkler heads attached to the pipes by threaded connections. The opening of a sprinkler is kept

closed by a disk held in a closed position by a thermal lock. If the room temperature rises to a specified point,

the lock is destroyed and the disk opens, admitting water to the room.

Drencher systems, which use nozzles without thermal locks, are actuated either by a sprinkler installed

in a trigger air line or by a cable-type thermal lock. Automatic fire protection systems are classified according to

the time elapsed between the start of the fire and the actuation of the system as ultrahigh-speed (to 0.1 second),

high-speed (to 3 seconds), and standard (to 180 second). The fire-extinguishing substance can be applied for

periods ranging from 30 second to 3600 second .


The system is divided into parts; hardware and software. In the hardware, a large and complex sensor

circuitry is to be designed to develop system awareness and capability to detect over-temperature, smoke and

flame. A microcontroller (ATmega 32) is used to process the various sensor signals and control the system

actuators accordingly. A firefighting pump will be interfaced to the microcontroller through a relay, and a GSM

module (SIM900) will be interconnected to the system and used to send SMS indicating the system and

environment status.A software code is developed to control the overall system functions. The code is written in

BASIC language using Basic Compiler for AVR (BASCOM-AVR).

Automatic Fire Fighting…

International organization of Scientific Research 65 | P a g e


The block diagram of the hardware implementation of the entire system is shown in Figure (1).The aim

of the design is to illustrate the usage of the fire fighter and its applications and the minimum equipment

required to construct the fire fighting system is a microcontroller, pump water, smoke sensor, temperature

sensor, flame sensor, led’s, GSM modem.

Figure (1) Block diagram of the wireless fire fighting system

The input system consists of three sensors. The mechanism of the system operation is based on

equations (1) to (7);

temperature alarm = (temperature sensor)ON..… …………… (1)

flame alarm = (flame sensor)ON ..……………………………..……… (2)

smoke alarm = (smoke sensor)ON ….………………………………… (3)

temperature-flame alarm= [(temperature sensor)ON AND

(flame sensor)ON] ………… (4)

temperature-smoke alarm= [(temperature sensor)ON AND

(smoke sensor)ON] ………… (5)

flame-smoke alarm= [(flame sensor)ON AND

(smoke sensor)ON] ………… (6)

temperature-flame-smoke fire = [(temperature sensor)ON AND

(flame sensor)ON AND (smoke sensor)ON ] ………… (7)

The hardware components are :

Smoke Sensor : A smoke detector is a device that detects smoke, typically as an indicator of fire. Commercial,

industrial, and mass residential devices issue a signal to a fire alarm system, while household detectors, known

as smoke alarms, generallyissue a local audible or visual alarm from the detector itself. Smoke detectors are

typically housed in a disk-shaped plastic enclosure Most smoke detectors work either by optical detection

(photoelectric) or by physical process (ionization), while others use both detection methods to increase

sensitivity to smoke. Sensitive alarms can be used to detect, and thus deter, smoking in areas where it is banned

such as toilets and schools. Smoke detectors in large commercial, industrial, and residential buildings are

usually powered by a central fire alarm system, which is powered by the building power with a battery backup.

However, in many single family detached and smaller multiple family housings, a smoke alarm is often powered

only by a single disposable battery .

LM35 Temperature Sensor : These sensors use a solid-state technique to determine the temperature.. They use

the fact as temperature increases, the voltage across adiode increases at a known rate. (Technically, this is

actually the voltage drop between the base and emitter – the Vbe – of a transistor). By precisely amplifying the



Relay and

Water pump














Automatic Fire Fighting…

International organization of Scientific Research 66 | P a g e

voltage change, it is easy to generate an analog signal that is directly proportional to temperature. There have

been some improvements on the technique but, essentially that is how temperature is measured. Because these

sensors have no moving parts, theyare precise, never wear out, don’t need calibration, work under many

environmental conditions, and are consistent between sensors and readings. Moreover they are easy to use .

Flame Sensor : This Flame Sensor can be used to detect fire source or other light sources of the wave length in

the range of 760nm – 1100 nm. It is based on the YG1006 sensor which is a high speed and high sensitive NPN

silicon phototransistor. Due to its black epoxy, the sensor is sensitive to infrared radiation.

Microcontroller: It is the heart of the system which controls all the activities of transmitting and receiving. A

microcontroller (also MCU or µC) is a functional computer system-on-achip. It contains a processor core,

memory, and programmable input/output peripherals.Microcontrollers include an integrated CPU, memory (a

small amount of RAM, program memory, or both) and peripherals capable of input and output. The IC used is

ATmega 32. It is an 8-bit microcontroller with 32 Kbytes of In-System Programming Flash Memory.The device

is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry

standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be or programmed

in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. BASCOM_AVR programmers Notepad

is used. The code after compilation generates ‘.hex’ file which is a hardware level code.

Relay : A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a witching

mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to

control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled


Pump water: Pump is a device used to move fluids (liquids or gases) or sometimes slurries by mechanical

action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid

direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps.

Pumps must havea mechanism which operates them, and consume energyto perform mechanical work by

moving the fluid. The activating mechanism is often reciprocating or rotary.

Light Emitting Diode (LED) : A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source that

resembles a basic pn-junction diode, except that an LED also emits light. When an LED’s anode lead has a

voltage that is more positive than its cathode lead by at least the LED’s forward voltage drop, current flows.

Electrons are able to recombine with holeswithin the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This

effect is called electroluminescence, and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is

determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor.

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) : GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications), is a

standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). It is controlled via AT

commands. Figure (2) illustrates the GSM modem.

Figure (2) GSM Modem

Automatic Fire Fighting…

International organization of Scientific Research 67 | P a g e

Siren : It is used to generate alarm sound whenever any of the sensors become active.


The microcontroller algorithm is based on performing the following steps :

 Polling the sensors .

 If the temperature sensor gives high reading , it is an indication of possible fire. .

 If the flame sensor gives abnormal reading , it is an indication of possible fire.

 If the smoke sensor gives a smoke alarm , it is an indication of possible fire.

 If the two sensors give abnormal readings , it is an indication of high possibility of fire.

 If the .three sensors gives abnormal readings , it is a definite indication of fire. .

Bascom programming language is used in programming the microcontroller The algorithm for the system is :


Initialization :

Put Relay OFF. (i,e. firefight pump is OFF).

Display GREEN LED ..

Poll the sensors:

If ( temperature > 50 ) , then call temperature subroutine..

If ( flame = ON ) , then call flame subroutine..

If ( smoke = ON ) , then call smoke subroutine..

If [( temperature > 50 ) AND ( flame = ON )] , then call temperature-flame subroutine..

If [( temperature > 50 ) AND ( smoke = ON )] , then call temperature-smoke subroutine..

If [( flame = ON ) AND ( smoke = ON )] , then call flame-smoke subroutine..

If [( temperature > 50 ) AND ( flame = ON ) AND ( smoke = ON )] , then call temperature-

flame-smoke subroutine..

Go to Poll the sensors.

Temperature :

… Put temperature LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 10 seconds.


Flame :

… Put flame LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 10 seconds.


Smoke :

… Put smoke LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 10 seconds.


Temperature-flame :

… Put temperature LED ON.

… Put flame LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 20 seconds.


temperature-smoke :

… Put temperature LED ON.

… Put smoke LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 210 seconds.


flame-smoke :

… Put flame LED ON.

… Put smoke LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 20 seconds.


Temperature-flame-smoke :

… Put temperature LED ON.

… Put flame LED ON.

… Put smoke LED ON.

Automatic Fire Fighting…

International organization of Scientific Research 68 | P a g e

… Activate the relay.

…. Activate siren for 30 seconds.



The system performs two types of tasks. The first type is that the system gives alarm for a possible fire

occurrence The second type is the automatic fire fighting task when the system assures the fire occurrence

.Table (1) below shows the results when operating the system .The table indicates the action taken for each


Table (1) The results when operating the system

Temp. sensor

Flame sensor

Smoke sensor






Temp. ON

Siren ON (10s.)




Flame ON

Siren ON (10s.)




Smoke ON

Siren ON (10s


Siren ON (20s.)





Siren ON (20s.)





Siren ON (20s.)




Temp+flame+ smoke


Siren ON (20s.) +

Relay ON

NOTE : Logic 1 = sensor is activated , Logic 0 = sensor is idle (not activated).


The circuit that enabled the firefighting system to detect and deal with over-temperature, smoke and

flame was designed, developed and tested. The Wireless firefighting System has successfully completed the

tasks as expected .The system is capable of indicating its status on LED indicator panel, detecting and putting

out fire. It’s also capable of communicating over GSM network through SMS. The ATmega32 microcontroller

is used to process the sensor circuitry input and control the indicator panel, and interface the system to GSM

network to enable wireless communication. It is also used to control a firefighting pump to put out flames when

detected. A model of the system is constructed and its operation is satisfactory.




Systems/Pub141_FireFighting, [3],accessed 05/04/2014.

[4] Steven Steven Frank Barrett, Daniel J. Pack, “Atmel AVR Microcontroller Primer: Programming and Interfacing”, Morgan &

Claypool Publishers, 2008



[7] h ttp://,

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Exploring the Mystique: Night Cloaked Deck



Exploring the Mystique: Night Cloaked Deck

A night cloaked deck carries an enigmatic allure, a veil of mystery draped over its wooden expanse. As shadows dance and moonlight cascades, it transforms into an ethereal stage for solitude, contemplation, or revelry. Delving into the secrets and stories concealed within this nocturnal realm unveils an intriguing journey.


The night cloaked deck beckons, shrouded in darkness, yet holding a unique charm. Each step across its boards whispers tales of mystique, inviting exploration into its nuanced beauty. Let’s embark on a guided tour through this intriguing domain.

Night Cloaked Charm

The night cloaked deck, an extension of the home, possesses a unique allure. Its charm lies in the interplay of darkness and subtle illumination, creating an ambiance unlike any other. Imagine the quietude enveloping this space, offering solace and a canvas for myriad emotions.

Moonlit Serenity

Under the soft glow of moonlight, the deck transforms into a sanctuary of serenity. Its wooden slats, bathed in silver hues, create an enchanting environment for relaxation or intimate conversations. Embracing the tranquility of these moments becomes a captivating experience.

Ambient Delights

The night cloaked deck amplifies the sensory experience, engaging not just sight but also sound and smell. The rustle of leaves, the gentle breeze, and the scent of nighttime blooms contribute to a symphony of nature, enhancing the ambiance.

Mysterious Encounters

Occasionally, the night cloaked deck becomes a stage for inexplicable occurrences. From rustling unseen presences to the flicker of distant lights, inexplicable encounters add to its mystique, leaving occupants in awe of the unknown.

Haunting Inspirations

The obscurity of the night invites contemplation and sparks creativity. Writers find inspiration, artists capture ethereal scenes, and dreamers weave tales under the night’s shroud, drawing from the mysterious allure of the deck.

Nocturnal Reflections

As nightfall descends, the deck becomes a mirror to one’s thoughts and emotions. It’s a space for introspection, where the silence echoes personal reflections, fostering a deeper connection with oneself and the surrounding world.

Ethereal Connections

The night cloaked deck serves as a bridge between the earthly and celestial realms. Stargazers find solace in celestial observations, connecting with the cosmos while grounded on this earthly platform, blurring the boundaries between the mundane and the divine.

Whispering Shadows

Shadows cast by the night cloak hold their own secrets, dancing to the rhythm of the night. Their movements create an ever-shifting landscape, enticing occupants to interpret and derive meaning from their elusive whispers.

Cosmic Conversations

Engaging in conversations on the night cloaked deck feels otherworldly. Discussions under the vast expanse of the night sky infuse a sense of profundity, fostering dialogues that transcend the ordinary, tapping into deeper realms of thought.

Midnight Revelations

In the midnight hours, the deck becomes a confidant, witnessing personal revelations and epiphanies. It’s a space where individuals confront their truths, finding solace in the silent embrace of the night.

Unveiling the Night Cloaked Deck

At first glance, the Night Cloaked Deck appears as a symphony of darkness woven into each card. However, beneath this mysterious facade lies a rich tapestry of symbolism and storytelling. Each card whispers tales of ancient wisdom, drawing inspiration from esoteric knowledge and mythological narratives.

The Intriguing Origins

Understanding the Night Cloaked Deck requires delving into its origins. Legends trace its genesis to clandestine circles of mystics in medieval Europe. It is said that these cards were crafted by secretive artisans who infused them with hidden meanings, often serving as a conduit for divination and introspection.

Decoding the Symbolism

The Moonlit Arcana: The Night Cloaked Deck’s symbolism thrives in the shadows. The moonlit arcana carries the essence of the deck, depicting celestial bodies, nocturnal creatures, and veiled figures. Each card whispers ancient wisdom, offering insights into the unknown realms of the subconscious.

Esoteric Encryptions:

Encoded within the intricate designs are esoteric encryptions, a cipher that reveals itself to the initiated. Symbols intertwine, forming a language that transcends the ordinary, inviting the seeker to unravel profound truths hidden within.

The Allure of Interpretation

Interpreting the Night Cloaked Deck transcends mere divination; it’s an art form that requires intuition and understanding. Each draw tells a unique story, a narrative shaped by the symbiotic dance between the seeker’s energy and the cards’ enigmatic messages.

The Unraveling of Mystery

Unveiling the secrets of the Night Cloaked Deck requires patience, reverence, and a willingness to embrace the unknown. Its enigma beckons those who dare to embark on a journey of self-discovery and introspection.

Embracing the Night Cloaked Wisdom

In a world often cloaked in the mundane, the Night Cloaked Deck emerges as a beacon of mystery and enlightenment. Embrace its whispers, decode its symbolism, and unravel the profound mysteries it holds within.

Journey into the Shadows

The Night Cloaked Deck isn’t just a collection of cards; it’s a gateway to a realm where mystery and wisdom converge. Each shuffle, each draw, is an invitation to embark on a transformative journey, guiding seekers through the labyrinth of the subconscious.

The Final Revelation

In a universe brimming with enigmas, the Night Cloaked Deck stands as a testament to the eternal pursuit of knowledge and enlightenment. Its cryptic allure remains an eternal beacon, guiding those who seek to navigate the shadows and embrace the profound revelations within.


  1. Is a night cloaked deck suitable for all weather conditions? Yes, but regular maintenance is crucial to withstand different weather elements.
  2. How can I enhance the ambiance of my night cloaked deck? Adding soft lighting, comfortable seating, and potted plants can elevate its charm.
  3. Are there safety measures to consider for a night cloaked deck? Ensuring sturdy construction, proper railing, and adequate lighting are essential for safety.
  4. Can a night cloaked deck affect property value? A well-designed and maintained deck can potentially increase property value.
  5. What materials are ideal for a night cloaked deck? Durable wood, composite materials, or treated lumber are commonly used for decks.
  6. How can I protect my night cloaked deck from environmental damage? Regular cleaning, sealing, and timely repairs help protect the deck from wear and tear.
  7. Is it advisable to use the night cloaked deck during extreme weather conditions? It’s safer to avoid the deck during severe weather conditions to prevent accidents.
  8. Can I personalize my night cloaked deck? Yes, adding personal touches like decor, furniture, and color schemes can personalize the space.
  9. Does the size of the deck impact its overall allure? While size matters, optimizing the space and its functionality play a significant role in its appeal.
  10. How do I maintain the tranquility of the night cloaked deck? Regular upkeep, minimizing clutter, and creating a serene atmosphere contribute to maintaining its tranquility.


A night cloaked deck embodies an otherworldly charm, weaving together elements of mystery, tranquility, and inspiration. As it stands silently under the cover of night, it offers a canvas for personal introspection, creative pursuits, and serene moments, becoming a cherished sanctuary within one’s home.

The allure of this nocturnal domain lies not just in its physical presence but in the stories, inspirations, and connections it fosters, making it an integral part of life’s journey under the night sky.

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A Beginner’s Guide to Renting a Luxury Cottage For The Holidays



A Beginner's Guide to Renting a Luxury Cottage For The Holidays

Holidays offer an excellent opportunity to unwind and connect with family and friends. While high-end hotels sometimes feel impersonal, a luxury cottage rental can provide a more authentic and comfortable experience. 

Plenty of lavish cottages are available for rent, but weighing various aspects before settling on the ideal one for your getaway is essential. This guide is tailored for beginners looking to spend their holiday in a luxurious cottage.

1. Check Legal Complications 

When selecting a luxury cottage, examining its legal aspects is crucial. Many luxury cottages offered for rental have a lease or rental agreement with a set time limit, which safeguards both parties. If you plan on renting a luxury cottage, it’s essential to have this agreement reviewed and validated by a qualified attorney before signing it. 

Within the rental agreement, check for details such as the names and addresses of the parties involved, the monetary amount, and the duration of the lease. Pay close attention to the specific time frame the agreement is valid.

2. Ask for Specifics ASAP

Once you’ve assembled a list of potential luxury cottages cornwall, initiating communication with the property owners is essential for a hassle-free booking experience. Start by sending inquiries and being candid about your questions, apprehensions, and expectations. Receiving a similar level of openness from the owner is key to creating a mutual understanding. 

Inquire about amenities, house rules, guest capacity, and other pertinent details. This will help dispel any uncertainties and supply crucial information before you confirm your reservation. Clear communication and shared comprehension with the property owner is vital for a smooth luxury cottage vacation.

3. Consider the Location 

When an oceanfront vista is a non-negotiable requirement, and the property listing explicitly indicates its location is several blocks from the shore, it’s best not to reserve that particular accommodation. 

Similarly, if you desire to be close to a bar, but the property is in a rural area many miles away, you can’t later complain if it’s as described. Don’t assume that something will be available unless it is specifically listed in the description. For instance, parking space is often essential for guests, but unless mentioned in the listing, don’t assume a private parking spot will be offered. 

4. Security-related Issues 

Take note of all possible entry and exit points, and if necessary, ask the landlord to secure certain areas and provide you with shared locks. Ensure that no duplicate keys are available without you knowing about them. 

5. Book in Advance

Luxury cottages often fill up a year in advance due to returning guests. Start your search as early as possible to secure your preferred dates and location, especially if you have limited flexibility. 

Once you’ve found the ideal rental property, familiarize yourself with cancellation policies, pet guidelines, check-in/check-out times, and any additional fees before booking. Using a specialized service, you can typically reserve a cottage online. Remember that prices for high-demand periods tend to increase as the dates approach.

6. Look at Reviews 

Reviewing past guests can offer a good idea of what to expect during your stay. However, one or two high ratings should not deter you as it indicates honest feedback. Multiple negative reviews, particularly mentioning issues with cleanliness or a discrepancy between the description and actual rental, should raise a red flag. 

Checking the rental’s social media accounts is a smart move to gain an understanding of the owner as well as read comments from past guests.

Holidays Are Better When Renting a Luxury Cottage

Renting a luxury cottage is often more enjoyable than reserving a hotel room. A luxury cottage has essential amenities, including well-equipped kitchens, to ensure a cozy stay. This alternative presents greater convenience and practicality than a traditional hotel room.


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A Beginner’s Guide to Purchasing a Caravan



A Beginner's Guide to Purchasing a Caravan

Purchasing a caravan home opens up many possibilities, such as road trips and going to many new places. However, since you are purchasing a caravan for the first time, it can be tedious. Also, you might be worried that the caravan you might end up with won’t meet your standards. In this article, you’ll learn how to purchase your first caravan and ensure it’s the one that meets your criteria.

What to Determine in Buying Your First Caravan?

It can be easy to get carried away in your desire to go out on a road trip in a caravan. But you’ll need to control those urges first because you’ll need to consider some factors before purchasing a caravan for your camping or road trip. Here are the determiners in buying your first caravan:

Do A Little Research First

Researching new and used caravan online dealers will help you narrow down your options for a caravan. Check the reviews of their previous customers as it should tip whether the dealers you will meet are legit or not worth your time and money.

An alternative method here is to be on the lookout for announcements about caravan and motorhome shows near you. These events can help you find the ideal caravan.

Have A Set Budget

To further narrow down your options in buying a caravan, you will need to come up with a rough estimate of how much you are willing to spend for a caravan. Invest in additional expenses such as repairs and peripherals, and give your caravan insurance. Make sure that the expenses are within the boundaries of your budget.

Here’s a little tip, some caravans are sold alongside their many amenities. If you’ve managed to stumble upon one – you might want to purchase it since all of the features you wanted in your caravan are already there. No more additional expenses to buy them yourself. However, you’d want to check whether the caravan’s dealer has a positive reputation.

Factor in The Size and The Towing Weight

Knowing the weight of your car is the next factor in purchasing a caravan, as it will be the one pulling the caravan. You must identify your car’s gross vehicle weight (GVM) or maximum authorized mass (MAM), expressed in kilograms, to see the type of caravans it can tow along the road. 

By determining the maximum weight your car can take, you can determine what size of caravan you will need.

Take A Look at The Caravans

Once you’ve settled on a budget, know how much weight your car can pull, and researched the dealers near you, it’s time to visit and see the caravans in person. Look for caravans that are of high quality yet reasonably priced. 

Check every corner of the caravan that you intend to purchase. Make sure that everything inside the caravan is working as intended. No faulty power systems, the engine’s well-maintained, and no sign of dampness inside.

Scrutinizing every corner of the caravan is crucial, especially if you’re purchasing a second-hand caravan. As said, ensure everything works properly because faulty power and gas leaks can pose a serious problem during your road trip.

Buy A Caravan For Your Dream Road Trip!

Now that you’ve learned how to purchase your first Caravan, you’d want to follow these steps for a worthwhile purchase. To recap, know your dealers, factor in your car’s pull weight, determine your budget, and check the caravan you intend to buy. Once you’ve finally purchased the caravan you’ve wanted, you’re all set to hit the road and camp somewhere with friends or family.


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