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Automatic Fire Hydrating System

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ABSTRACT : Automatic fire-fighting systems are installed in buildings and rooms where the fire hazard is

comparatively high. This paper deals with the design and implementation of a firefighting system based on a

Microcontroller. The system implements an early fire detection mechanism, and communicates with its owners

wirelessly over GSM networks. It should also be capable of putting out fire by means of a firefighting pump, and

to justify the status of the indicator panel that provides visual feedback of the current status of the monitored

environment at any given time . According to the methodology, the Wireless Firefighting System uses

temperature sensors to monitor its surrounding environment and alert the system owner in case it detects smoke,

fire or that the temperature has gone outside the normal parameters. The sensor signals are fed to, and

processed by (ATmega32) microcontroller program by BASCOM language which polls the sensors to monitor

environment and shows its status on LED status indicator panel. The ATmega32 also connects to SIM900

GSM/GPRS module which enables the system to communicate their owners over long distances and notify them

the status of their protected environment. The system has a firefighting pump on standby to operate in case fire

has been detected through flaming sensors.

KEYWORDS : fire-fighting system , Bascom , GSM system , LED ,ATmega 32 .

I. INTRODUCTION

Fire fighting System is used to prevent, extinguish, localize, or block fires in enclosed spaces.

Automatic fire-fighting systems are installed in buildings and rooms where the fire hazard is comparatively

high. A distinction is made between systems that are actuated automatically and operate according to a

predetermined program and those that are actuated by an operator; the former are called automatic fire

protection systems, the latter fire protection units. An automatic fire-fighting system includes a sensor capable

of detecting combustion, alarm signaling devices, fire-extinguishing equipment, starting and stopping devices,

and feeders for the fire-extinguishing substance. Atomizers, foam generators, and pipe nozzles form and direct

the stream of the fire-extinguishing substance, which may be a liquid, foam, powder, or gas. Fire-extinguishing

substances are fed into the system from a centralized supply, such as a water supply, or from self-contained or

combined feeders.The most widely used systems employ water (sprinkler and drencher systems), carbon

dioxide, aerosols, or powders. A sprinkler system consists of a grid of pipelines located on the ceiling of the

room, with sprinkler heads attached to the pipes by threaded connections. The opening of a sprinkler is kept

closed by a disk held in a closed position by a thermal lock. If the room temperature rises to a specified point,

the lock is destroyed and the disk opens, admitting water to the room.

Drencher systems, which use nozzles without thermal locks, are actuated either by a sprinkler installed

in a trigger air line or by a cable-type thermal lock. Automatic fire protection systems are classified according to

the time elapsed between the start of the fire and the actuation of the system as ultrahigh-speed (to 0.1 second),

high-speed (to 3 seconds), and standard (to 180 second). The fire-extinguishing substance can be applied for

periods ranging from 30 second to 3600 second .

II. METHODOLOGY

The system is divided into parts; hardware and software. In the hardware, a large and complex sensor

circuitry is to be designed to develop system awareness and capability to detect over-temperature, smoke and

flame. A microcontroller (ATmega 32) is used to process the various sensor signals and control the system

actuators accordingly. A firefighting pump will be interfaced to the microcontroller through a relay, and a GSM

module (SIM900) will be interconnected to the system and used to send SMS indicating the system and

environment status.A software code is developed to control the overall system functions. The code is written in

BASIC language using Basic Compiler for AVR (BASCOM-AVR).

Automatic Fire Fighting…

International organization of Scientific Research 65 | P a g e

III. SYSTEM LAYOUT

The block diagram of the hardware implementation of the entire system is shown in Figure (1).The aim

of the design is to illustrate the usage of the fire fighter and its applications and the minimum equipment

required to construct the fire fighting system is a microcontroller, pump water, smoke sensor, temperature

sensor, flame sensor, led’s, GSM modem.

Figure (1) Block diagram of the wireless fire fighting system

The input system consists of three sensors. The mechanism of the system operation is based on

equations (1) to (7);

temperature alarm = (temperature sensor)ON..… …………… (1)

flame alarm = (flame sensor)ON ..……………………………..……… (2)

smoke alarm = (smoke sensor)ON ….………………………………… (3)

temperature-flame alarm= [(temperature sensor)ON AND

(flame sensor)ON] ………… (4)

temperature-smoke alarm= [(temperature sensor)ON AND

(smoke sensor)ON] ………… (5)

flame-smoke alarm= [(flame sensor)ON AND

(smoke sensor)ON] ………… (6)

temperature-flame-smoke fire = [(temperature sensor)ON AND

(flame sensor)ON AND (smoke sensor)ON ] ………… (7)

The hardware components are :

Smoke Sensor : A smoke detector is a device that detects smoke, typically as an indicator of fire. Commercial,

industrial, and mass residential devices issue a signal to a fire alarm system, while household detectors, known

as smoke alarms, generallyissue a local audible or visual alarm from the detector itself. Smoke detectors are

typically housed in a disk-shaped plastic enclosure Most smoke detectors work either by optical detection

(photoelectric) or by physical process (ionization), while others use both detection methods to increase

sensitivity to smoke. Sensitive alarms can be used to detect, and thus deter, smoking in areas where it is banned

such as toilets and schools. Smoke detectors in large commercial, industrial, and residential buildings are

usually powered by a central fire alarm system, which is powered by the building power with a battery backup.

However, in many single family detached and smaller multiple family housings, a smoke alarm is often powered

only by a single disposable battery .

LM35 Temperature Sensor : These sensors use a solid-state technique to determine the temperature.. They use

the fact as temperature increases, the voltage across adiode increases at a known rate. (Technically, this is

actually the voltage drop between the base and emitter – the Vbe – of a transistor). By precisely amplifying the

Microcon

troller

Relay and

Water pump

Smoke

sensor

LM35

Temperatur

e

Flame

Sensor

GSM

modem

LEDS

Smoke

sensor

SIREN

Automatic Fire Fighting…

International organization of Scientific Research 66 | P a g e

voltage change, it is easy to generate an analog signal that is directly proportional to temperature. There have

been some improvements on the technique but, essentially that is how temperature is measured. Because these

sensors have no moving parts, theyare precise, never wear out, don’t need calibration, work under many

environmental conditions, and are consistent between sensors and readings. Moreover they are easy to use .

Flame Sensor : This Flame Sensor can be used to detect fire source or other light sources of the wave length in

the range of 760nm – 1100 nm. It is based on the YG1006 sensor which is a high speed and high sensitive NPN

silicon phototransistor. Due to its black epoxy, the sensor is sensitive to infrared radiation.

Microcontroller: It is the heart of the system which controls all the activities of transmitting and receiving. A

microcontroller (also MCU or µC) is a functional computer system-on-achip. It contains a processor core,

memory, and programmable input/output peripherals.Microcontrollers include an integrated CPU, memory (a

small amount of RAM, program memory, or both) and peripherals capable of input and output. The IC used is

ATmega 32. It is an 8-bit microcontroller with 32 Kbytes of In-System Programming Flash Memory.The device

is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry

standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be or programmed

in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. BASCOM_AVR programmers Notepad

is used. The code after compilation generates ‘.hex’ file which is a hardware level code.

Relay : A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a witching

mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to

control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled

circuits).

Pump water: Pump is a device used to move fluids (liquids or gases) or sometimes slurries by mechanical

action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid

direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps.

Pumps must havea mechanism which operates them, and consume energyto perform mechanical work by

moving the fluid. The activating mechanism is often reciprocating or rotary.

Light Emitting Diode (LED) : A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source that

resembles a basic pn-junction diode, except that an LED also emits light. When an LED’s anode lead has a

voltage that is more positive than its cathode lead by at least the LED’s forward voltage drop, current flows.

Electrons are able to recombine with holeswithin the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This

effect is called electroluminescence, and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is

determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor.

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) : GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications), is a

standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). It is controlled via AT

commands. Figure (2) illustrates the GSM modem.

Figure (2) GSM Modem

Automatic Fire Fighting…

International organization of Scientific Research 67 | P a g e

Siren : It is used to generate alarm sound whenever any of the sensors become active.

IV. ALGORITHM

The microcontroller algorithm is based on performing the following steps :

 Polling the sensors .

 If the temperature sensor gives high reading , it is an indication of possible fire. .

 If the flame sensor gives abnormal reading , it is an indication of possible fire.

 If the smoke sensor gives a smoke alarm , it is an indication of possible fire.

 If the two sensors give abnormal readings , it is an indication of high possibility of fire.

 If the .three sensors gives abnormal readings , it is a definite indication of fire. .

Bascom programming language is used in programming the microcontroller The algorithm for the system is :

Start

Initialization :

Put Relay OFF. (i,e. firefight pump is OFF).

Display GREEN LED ..

Poll the sensors:

If ( temperature > 50 ) , then call temperature subroutine..

If ( flame = ON ) , then call flame subroutine..

If ( smoke = ON ) , then call smoke subroutine..

If [( temperature > 50 ) AND ( flame = ON )] , then call temperature-flame subroutine..

If [( temperature > 50 ) AND ( smoke = ON )] , then call temperature-smoke subroutine..

If [( flame = ON ) AND ( smoke = ON )] , then call flame-smoke subroutine..

If [( temperature > 50 ) AND ( flame = ON ) AND ( smoke = ON )] , then call temperature-

flame-smoke subroutine..

Go to Poll the sensors.

Temperature :

… Put temperature LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 10 seconds.

Return.

Flame :

… Put flame LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 10 seconds.

Return.

Smoke :

… Put smoke LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 10 seconds.

Return.

Temperature-flame :

… Put temperature LED ON.

… Put flame LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 20 seconds.

Return.

temperature-smoke :

… Put temperature LED ON.

… Put smoke LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 210 seconds.

Return.

flame-smoke :

… Put flame LED ON.

… Put smoke LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 20 seconds.

Return.

Temperature-flame-smoke :

… Put temperature LED ON.

… Put flame LED ON.

… Put smoke LED ON.

Automatic Fire Fighting…

International organization of Scientific Research 68 | P a g e

… Activate the relay.

…. Activate siren for 30 seconds.

Return.

V . RESULTS

The system performs two types of tasks. The first type is that the system gives alarm for a possible fire

occurrence The second type is the automatic fire fighting task when the system assures the fire occurrence

.Table (1) below shows the results when operating the system .The table indicates the action taken for each

happening.

Table (1) The results when operating the system

Temp. sensor

Flame sensor

Smoke sensor

LED’s

ACTION

1

0

0

Temp. ON

Siren ON (10s.)

0

1

0

Flame ON

Siren ON (10s.)

0

0

1

Smoke ON

Siren ON (10s

Temp+flameON

Siren ON (20s.)

1

0

1

Temp+smokeON

Siren ON (20s.)

0

1

1

flame+smokeON

Siren ON (20s.)

1

1

1

Temp+flame+ smoke

ON

Siren ON (20s.) +

Relay ON

NOTE : Logic 1 = sensor is activated , Logic 0 = sensor is idle (not activated).

VI . CONCLUSION

The circuit that enabled the firefighting system to detect and deal with over-temperature, smoke and

flame was designed, developed and tested. The Wireless firefighting System has successfully completed the

tasks as expected .The system is capable of indicating its status on LED indicator panel, detecting and putting

out fire. It’s also capable of communicating over GSM network through SMS. The ATmega32 microcontroller

is used to process the sensor circuitry input and control the indicator panel, and interface the system to GSM

network to enable wireless communication. It is also used to control a firefighting pump to put out flames when

detected. A model of the system is constructed and its operation is satisfactory.

REFERENCES

[1] http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/FireFighting+System,+Automatic,

[2]https://www.eagle.org/eagleExternalPortalWEB/ShowProperty/BEA%20Repository/Rules&Guides/Current/141_FireFighting

Systems/Pub141_FireFighting, [3]http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/smoke_detector,accessed 05/04/2014.

[4] Steven Steven Frank Barrett, Daniel J. Pack, “Atmel AVR Microcontroller Primer: Programming and Interfacing”, Morgan &

Claypool Publishers, 2008

[5] http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/smoke_relay.

[6] http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/pump,.

[7] h ttp:// elecfreaks.com/wiki/index.php?title=EFCom_pro_GPRS/GSM_module,

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