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Automatic Fire Hydrating System



ABSTRACT : Automatic fire-fighting systems are installed in buildings and rooms where the fire hazard is

comparatively high. This paper deals with the design and implementation of a firefighting system based on a

Microcontroller. The system implements an early fire detection mechanism, and communicates with its owners

wirelessly over GSM networks. It should also be capable of putting out fire by means of a firefighting pump, and

to justify the status of the indicator panel that provides visual feedback of the current status of the monitored

environment at any given time . According to the methodology, the Wireless Firefighting System uses

temperature sensors to monitor its surrounding environment and alert the system owner in case it detects smoke,

fire or that the temperature has gone outside the normal parameters. The sensor signals are fed to, and

processed by (ATmega32) microcontroller program by BASCOM language which polls the sensors to monitor

environment and shows its status on LED status indicator panel. The ATmega32 also connects to SIM900

GSM/GPRS module which enables the system to communicate their owners over long distances and notify them

the status of their protected environment. The system has a firefighting pump on standby to operate in case fire

has been detected through flaming sensors.

KEYWORDS : fire-fighting system , Bascom , GSM system , LED ,ATmega 32 .


Fire fighting System is used to prevent, extinguish, localize, or block fires in enclosed spaces.

Automatic fire-fighting systems are installed in buildings and rooms where the fire hazard is comparatively

high. A distinction is made between systems that are actuated automatically and operate according to a

predetermined program and those that are actuated by an operator; the former are called automatic fire

protection systems, the latter fire protection units. An automatic fire-fighting system includes a sensor capable

of detecting combustion, alarm signaling devices, fire-extinguishing equipment, starting and stopping devices,

and feeders for the fire-extinguishing substance. Atomizers, foam generators, and pipe nozzles form and direct

the stream of the fire-extinguishing substance, which may be a liquid, foam, powder, or gas. Fire-extinguishing

substances are fed into the system from a centralized supply, such as a water supply, or from self-contained or

combined feeders.The most widely used systems employ water (sprinkler and drencher systems), carbon

dioxide, aerosols, or powders. A sprinkler system consists of a grid of pipelines located on the ceiling of the

room, with sprinkler heads attached to the pipes by threaded connections. The opening of a sprinkler is kept

closed by a disk held in a closed position by a thermal lock. If the room temperature rises to a specified point,

the lock is destroyed and the disk opens, admitting water to the room.

Drencher systems, which use nozzles without thermal locks, are actuated either by a sprinkler installed

in a trigger air line or by a cable-type thermal lock. Automatic fire protection systems are classified according to

the time elapsed between the start of the fire and the actuation of the system as ultrahigh-speed (to 0.1 second),

high-speed (to 3 seconds), and standard (to 180 second). The fire-extinguishing substance can be applied for

periods ranging from 30 second to 3600 second .


The system is divided into parts; hardware and software. In the hardware, a large and complex sensor

circuitry is to be designed to develop system awareness and capability to detect over-temperature, smoke and

flame. A microcontroller (ATmega 32) is used to process the various sensor signals and control the system

actuators accordingly. A firefighting pump will be interfaced to the microcontroller through a relay, and a GSM

module (SIM900) will be interconnected to the system and used to send SMS indicating the system and

environment status.A software code is developed to control the overall system functions. The code is written in

BASIC language using Basic Compiler for AVR (BASCOM-AVR).

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International organization of Scientific Research 65 | P a g e


The block diagram of the hardware implementation of the entire system is shown in Figure (1).The aim

of the design is to illustrate the usage of the fire fighter and its applications and the minimum equipment

required to construct the fire fighting system is a microcontroller, pump water, smoke sensor, temperature

sensor, flame sensor, led’s, GSM modem.

Figure (1) Block diagram of the wireless fire fighting system

The input system consists of three sensors. The mechanism of the system operation is based on

equations (1) to (7);

temperature alarm = (temperature sensor)ON..… …………… (1)

flame alarm = (flame sensor)ON ..……………………………..……… (2)

smoke alarm = (smoke sensor)ON ….………………………………… (3)

temperature-flame alarm= [(temperature sensor)ON AND

(flame sensor)ON] ………… (4)

temperature-smoke alarm= [(temperature sensor)ON AND

(smoke sensor)ON] ………… (5)

flame-smoke alarm= [(flame sensor)ON AND

(smoke sensor)ON] ………… (6)

temperature-flame-smoke fire = [(temperature sensor)ON AND

(flame sensor)ON AND (smoke sensor)ON ] ………… (7)

The hardware components are :

Smoke Sensor : A smoke detector is a device that detects smoke, typically as an indicator of fire. Commercial,

industrial, and mass residential devices issue a signal to a fire alarm system, while household detectors, known

as smoke alarms, generallyissue a local audible or visual alarm from the detector itself. Smoke detectors are

typically housed in a disk-shaped plastic enclosure Most smoke detectors work either by optical detection

(photoelectric) or by physical process (ionization), while others use both detection methods to increase

sensitivity to smoke. Sensitive alarms can be used to detect, and thus deter, smoking in areas where it is banned

such as toilets and schools. Smoke detectors in large commercial, industrial, and residential buildings are

usually powered by a central fire alarm system, which is powered by the building power with a battery backup.

However, in many single family detached and smaller multiple family housings, a smoke alarm is often powered

only by a single disposable battery .

LM35 Temperature Sensor : These sensors use a solid-state technique to determine the temperature.. They use

the fact as temperature increases, the voltage across adiode increases at a known rate. (Technically, this is

actually the voltage drop between the base and emitter – the Vbe – of a transistor). By precisely amplifying the



Relay and

Water pump














Automatic Fire Fighting…

International organization of Scientific Research 66 | P a g e

voltage change, it is easy to generate an analog signal that is directly proportional to temperature. There have

been some improvements on the technique but, essentially that is how temperature is measured. Because these

sensors have no moving parts, theyare precise, never wear out, don’t need calibration, work under many

environmental conditions, and are consistent between sensors and readings. Moreover they are easy to use .

Flame Sensor : This Flame Sensor can be used to detect fire source or other light sources of the wave length in

the range of 760nm – 1100 nm. It is based on the YG1006 sensor which is a high speed and high sensitive NPN

silicon phototransistor. Due to its black epoxy, the sensor is sensitive to infrared radiation.

Microcontroller: It is the heart of the system which controls all the activities of transmitting and receiving. A

microcontroller (also MCU or µC) is a functional computer system-on-achip. It contains a processor core,

memory, and programmable input/output peripherals.Microcontrollers include an integrated CPU, memory (a

small amount of RAM, program memory, or both) and peripherals capable of input and output. The IC used is

ATmega 32. It is an 8-bit microcontroller with 32 Kbytes of In-System Programming Flash Memory.The device

is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry

standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be or programmed

in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. BASCOM_AVR programmers Notepad

is used. The code after compilation generates ‘.hex’ file which is a hardware level code.

Relay : A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a witching

mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to

control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled


Pump water: Pump is a device used to move fluids (liquids or gases) or sometimes slurries by mechanical

action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid

direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps.

Pumps must havea mechanism which operates them, and consume energyto perform mechanical work by

moving the fluid. The activating mechanism is often reciprocating or rotary.

Light Emitting Diode (LED) : A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source that

resembles a basic pn-junction diode, except that an LED also emits light. When an LED’s anode lead has a

voltage that is more positive than its cathode lead by at least the LED’s forward voltage drop, current flows.

Electrons are able to recombine with holeswithin the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This

effect is called electroluminescence, and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is

determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor.

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) : GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications), is a

standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). It is controlled via AT

commands. Figure (2) illustrates the GSM modem.

Figure (2) GSM Modem

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International organization of Scientific Research 67 | P a g e

Siren : It is used to generate alarm sound whenever any of the sensors become active.


The microcontroller algorithm is based on performing the following steps :

 Polling the sensors .

 If the temperature sensor gives high reading , it is an indication of possible fire. .

 If the flame sensor gives abnormal reading , it is an indication of possible fire.

 If the smoke sensor gives a smoke alarm , it is an indication of possible fire.

 If the two sensors give abnormal readings , it is an indication of high possibility of fire.

 If the .three sensors gives abnormal readings , it is a definite indication of fire. .

Bascom programming language is used in programming the microcontroller The algorithm for the system is :


Initialization :

Put Relay OFF. (i,e. firefight pump is OFF).

Display GREEN LED ..

Poll the sensors:

If ( temperature > 50 ) , then call temperature subroutine..

If ( flame = ON ) , then call flame subroutine..

If ( smoke = ON ) , then call smoke subroutine..

If [( temperature > 50 ) AND ( flame = ON )] , then call temperature-flame subroutine..

If [( temperature > 50 ) AND ( smoke = ON )] , then call temperature-smoke subroutine..

If [( flame = ON ) AND ( smoke = ON )] , then call flame-smoke subroutine..

If [( temperature > 50 ) AND ( flame = ON ) AND ( smoke = ON )] , then call temperature-

flame-smoke subroutine..

Go to Poll the sensors.

Temperature :

… Put temperature LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 10 seconds.


Flame :

… Put flame LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 10 seconds.


Smoke :

… Put smoke LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 10 seconds.


Temperature-flame :

… Put temperature LED ON.

… Put flame LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 20 seconds.


temperature-smoke :

… Put temperature LED ON.

… Put smoke LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 210 seconds.


flame-smoke :

… Put flame LED ON.

… Put smoke LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 20 seconds.


Temperature-flame-smoke :

… Put temperature LED ON.

… Put flame LED ON.

… Put smoke LED ON.

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International organization of Scientific Research 68 | P a g e

… Activate the relay.

…. Activate siren for 30 seconds.



The system performs two types of tasks. The first type is that the system gives alarm for a possible fire

occurrence The second type is the automatic fire fighting task when the system assures the fire occurrence

.Table (1) below shows the results when operating the system .The table indicates the action taken for each


Table (1) The results when operating the system

Temp. sensor

Flame sensor

Smoke sensor






Temp. ON

Siren ON (10s.)




Flame ON

Siren ON (10s.)




Smoke ON

Siren ON (10s


Siren ON (20s.)





Siren ON (20s.)





Siren ON (20s.)




Temp+flame+ smoke


Siren ON (20s.) +

Relay ON

NOTE : Logic 1 = sensor is activated , Logic 0 = sensor is idle (not activated).


The circuit that enabled the firefighting system to detect and deal with over-temperature, smoke and

flame was designed, developed and tested. The Wireless firefighting System has successfully completed the

tasks as expected .The system is capable of indicating its status on LED indicator panel, detecting and putting

out fire. It’s also capable of communicating over GSM network through SMS. The ATmega32 microcontroller

is used to process the sensor circuitry input and control the indicator panel, and interface the system to GSM

network to enable wireless communication. It is also used to control a firefighting pump to put out flames when

detected. A model of the system is constructed and its operation is satisfactory.




Systems/Pub141_FireFighting, [3],accessed 05/04/2014.

[4] Steven Steven Frank Barrett, Daniel J. Pack, “Atmel AVR Microcontroller Primer: Programming and Interfacing”, Morgan &

Claypool Publishers, 2008



[7] h ttp://,

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Owner of iPhonix mobile Abhishek Balsara offers iPhones at the best rates



Owner of iPhonix mobile Abhishek Balsara offers iPhones at the best rates

iPhonix mobile

The iPhone can be an expensive option for some, but its price covers all the requirements of a person’s life and it is completely reliable. With an iPhone, you probably don’t need any other external devices.
These days, people are very careful about what they buy and what they wear, and depending on the trend, they also pay attention to the type of purchase. As the world of technology evolves, so does the demand for more functionality. This is the reason why the iPhone has become so popular in India and is currently the longest running phone that competes with Android.

Abhishek Balsara

To be precise, the iPhone is admired by almost everyone because it not only looks good but also has essential features that are really useful for the people who use it. Also, there have been a lot of updates as the company has been waiting for what people actually find useful and necessary in a phone. The iPhone may be an expensive option for some, but its price is completely reliable as it covers all the requirements of a person’s life. . With an iPhone, you probably don’t need any other external devices. You can trust him and his tasks so you never have to worry again.

The price range is usually a big problem for people, but today we will talk about the people and their institutions that make these smartphones very cheap and affordable. This is the only store that offers the latest genuine iPhones at the lowest prices and no other store offers similar products and services. It has been around for a long time and can be completely trusted due to its solid reputation and the great reviews it has collected over the years.

iPhonix Mobile is completely customer focused and has provided unmatched customer service for a long time, earning people’s trust and admiration. So come on, if you want the perfect smartphone, you know where to go. Not only is it the latest trend in the market, but it is also very affordable.

Please visit iPhonix Mobile at the link below for the latest product information. Be the first to get it!

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How to Find an Obituary for a Specific Person



How to Find an Obituary for a Specific Person

As part of your family tree or ancestry research, you may need to find the obituary of a particular person. This article provides a list of resources to help find the obituary of a particular person.

Obituaries are one of the most important sources of information genealogists look for when looking for clues related to the life of their ancestors. What many may not know is that the practice of announcing death in this way dates back to 59 BC.

Roman newspapers inscribed in metal or stone, known as the Acta Diurna (Daily Events), are published in important places in Rome. It features celebrity births and deaths, as well as general gossip about important people in the city.

In 1439, the printing press was invented, and with the advent of newspapers, the practice of announcing prominent deaths continued.This has survived and is still a common practice.

So why do genealogies need obituaries, and more importantly

, how do you find the obituaries you need for your research?

Importance of obituaries

relatives and friends
Those with aging parents or who lived with grandparents may have sat and read the local newspaper to see if anyone they knew had died. As we grow older, we feel a morbid fascination with our own mortality, and as a result, we become fascinated by the people we meet and those who are close to our own age.

An obituary is an opportunity for families to let people they don’t know know that a loved one has died. In many cases, this allows family members to let people know when the funeral will be held, and old friends to attend and offer their condolences.

Obituaries serve an important social function. Because bereaved families don’t have to spend time grieving connecting with everyone the deceased loved one may have known.

Although obituaries are very important to genealogists, they are technically not considered definitive documentary evidence. Searching for ancestors in obituaries can help you find important information such as:

close relatives
Religion and Church Affiliation
date of birth and place of birth
place of death and date of death
former job

important biographical information

The family information provided in the obituary helps distinguish between the two of her namesakes in official documents. Knowing the names of siblings and parents makes it easier to determine a person’s accurate census record.
As with any mystery, there may be many small clues here to help you find the truth and the documents that support it. should always be taken as clues until further evidence is documented.

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Cost increases faced with end of Adjusted Right to Rent checks



Cost increases faced with end of Adjusted Right to Rent checks

Rental agents are taking significant steps to comply with rental eligibility checks as the system allowing for coordinated checks (for example via Zoom calls and copies of documents) will end in the UK on 30 September of 2022. We are facing increasing costs.

From October 1, 2022, agents responsible for reapplying for tenants and rent checks will need to review their processes to be ready to return to manual in-person checks (this may be because someone who qualifies as a UK resident you will still be admitted if you present a valid ID). and Irish citizens), or register with one of the proptech service providers accredited by the UK government as a Digital Identity Service Provider (IDSP). Foreign checks must be processed through the Ministry of the Interior’s Sharecode system, to which agents have free access.

The change comes at the same time that agencies will have to deal with rising energy bills and rising staff retention costs by maintaining competitive compensation packages.

IDSP cost for British and Irish citizens
With the announcement of the first IDSP under the UK’s digital identity and attribute trust framework, agents need to be aware of and prepare for the upcoming changes. With the promulgation of the Tenant Fees Act 2019, the costs associated with the delivery of checks for the right to rent have not changed and cannot be passed on to applicants.

Coordinated checks were introduced as part of COVID-19 measures to reduce face-to-face contact and have been expanded as the Home Office works to implement a robust digital solution for national checks in the UK and Ireland. If an agent wishes to provide digital checks to people with ID cards in the UK and Ireland, once adjusted rental eligibility verification is complete, the agent will need to register with an ID service provider who will incur a fee for the service. Alternatively, agents can provide a manual verification in person if the applicant provides a suitable British or Irish ID. If an agent chooses to use IDSPs, they must take into account UK and Irish citizens who choose to verify their identity offline and must not discriminate on that basis.

Digital verifications for foreigners can be done easily and at no external cost by verifying through the home office system in real time using the common digital code and date of birth provided by the applicant.

If the agency’s system relies primarily on in-person reviews, consider the need for additional time and resources to schedule appointments for applicant reviews (and follow-up reviews of submitters, subject to time constraints). status) and the associated time change.

Keeping track of rent checks is more important than ever
Propertymark members notify the Home Office to establish a “legal excuse” for agents to provide statutory audit information if they are unable to obtain a foreign rent check again during the rental period. against late and/or civil penalties.

The Rental Law Code of Practice is ambiguous about liability for civil penalties when agents use IDSPs. The ultimate responsibility for verification rests with the landlord or designated rental agent. Therefore, the use of a UK government accredited IDSP does not eliminate all risks of civil penalties for landlords or designated rental agents when investigated by immigration authorities.

The reintroduction of personal checks coincided with seasonal changes in the incidence of COVID, the impact of which is unknown.

Since it was first introduced under immigration law in 2014, the work required for agents to complete rent checks in the UK has increased dramatically and there are now over 100 pages of instructions for agents to understand. years. The Rent Payments Act of 2019 forced agents to incur higher costs in this area.

A period of additional requirements is coming, whether agents continue to conduct in-person rental checks during application and follow-up or use one of our approved IDSP providers. This is a particular problem given the heightened scrutiny of students who are British citizens from the academic year onwards.

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