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Automatic Fire Hydrating System



ABSTRACT : Automatic fire-fighting systems are installed in buildings and rooms where the fire hazard is

comparatively high. This paper deals with the design and implementation of a firefighting system based on a

Microcontroller. The system implements an early fire detection mechanism, and communicates with its owners

wirelessly over GSM networks. It should also be capable of putting out fire by means of a firefighting pump, and

to justify the status of the indicator panel that provides visual feedback of the current status of the monitored

environment at any given time . According to the methodology, the Wireless Firefighting System uses

temperature sensors to monitor its surrounding environment and alert the system owner in case it detects smoke,

fire or that the temperature has gone outside the normal parameters. The sensor signals are fed to, and

processed by (ATmega32) microcontroller program by BASCOM language which polls the sensors to monitor

environment and shows its status on LED status indicator panel. The ATmega32 also connects to SIM900

GSM/GPRS module which enables the system to communicate their owners over long distances and notify them

the status of their protected environment. The system has a firefighting pump on standby to operate in case fire

has been detected through flaming sensors.

KEYWORDS : fire-fighting system , Bascom , GSM system , LED ,ATmega 32 .


Fire fighting System is used to prevent, extinguish, localize, or block fires in enclosed spaces.

Automatic fire-fighting systems are installed in buildings and rooms where the fire hazard is comparatively

high. A distinction is made between systems that are actuated automatically and operate according to a

predetermined program and those that are actuated by an operator; the former are called automatic fire

protection systems, the latter fire protection units. An automatic fire-fighting system includes a sensor capable

of detecting combustion, alarm signaling devices, fire-extinguishing equipment, starting and stopping devices,

and feeders for the fire-extinguishing substance. Atomizers, foam generators, and pipe nozzles form and direct

the stream of the fire-extinguishing substance, which may be a liquid, foam, powder, or gas. Fire-extinguishing

substances are fed into the system from a centralized supply, such as a water supply, or from self-contained or

combined feeders.The most widely used systems employ water (sprinkler and drencher systems), carbon

dioxide, aerosols, or powders. A sprinkler system consists of a grid of pipelines located on the ceiling of the

room, with sprinkler heads attached to the pipes by threaded connections. The opening of a sprinkler is kept

closed by a disk held in a closed position by a thermal lock. If the room temperature rises to a specified point,

the lock is destroyed and the disk opens, admitting water to the room.

Drencher systems, which use nozzles without thermal locks, are actuated either by a sprinkler installed

in a trigger air line or by a cable-type thermal lock. Automatic fire protection systems are classified according to

the time elapsed between the start of the fire and the actuation of the system as ultrahigh-speed (to 0.1 second),

high-speed (to 3 seconds), and standard (to 180 second). The fire-extinguishing substance can be applied for

periods ranging from 30 second to 3600 second .


The system is divided into parts; hardware and software. In the hardware, a large and complex sensor

circuitry is to be designed to develop system awareness and capability to detect over-temperature, smoke and

flame. A microcontroller (ATmega 32) is used to process the various sensor signals and control the system

actuators accordingly. A firefighting pump will be interfaced to the microcontroller through a relay, and a GSM

module (SIM900) will be interconnected to the system and used to send SMS indicating the system and

environment status.A software code is developed to control the overall system functions. The code is written in

BASIC language using Basic Compiler for AVR (BASCOM-AVR).

Automatic Fire Fighting…

International organization of Scientific Research 65 | P a g e


The block diagram of the hardware implementation of the entire system is shown in Figure (1).The aim

of the design is to illustrate the usage of the fire fighter and its applications and the minimum equipment

required to construct the fire fighting system is a microcontroller, pump water, smoke sensor, temperature

sensor, flame sensor, led’s, GSM modem.

Figure (1) Block diagram of the wireless fire fighting system

The input system consists of three sensors. The mechanism of the system operation is based on

equations (1) to (7);

temperature alarm = (temperature sensor)ON..… …………… (1)

flame alarm = (flame sensor)ON ..……………………………..……… (2)

smoke alarm = (smoke sensor)ON ….………………………………… (3)

temperature-flame alarm= [(temperature sensor)ON AND

(flame sensor)ON] ………… (4)

temperature-smoke alarm= [(temperature sensor)ON AND

(smoke sensor)ON] ………… (5)

flame-smoke alarm= [(flame sensor)ON AND

(smoke sensor)ON] ………… (6)

temperature-flame-smoke fire = [(temperature sensor)ON AND

(flame sensor)ON AND (smoke sensor)ON ] ………… (7)

The hardware components are :

Smoke Sensor : A smoke detector is a device that detects smoke, typically as an indicator of fire. Commercial,

industrial, and mass residential devices issue a signal to a fire alarm system, while household detectors, known

as smoke alarms, generallyissue a local audible or visual alarm from the detector itself. Smoke detectors are

typically housed in a disk-shaped plastic enclosure Most smoke detectors work either by optical detection

(photoelectric) or by physical process (ionization), while others use both detection methods to increase

sensitivity to smoke. Sensitive alarms can be used to detect, and thus deter, smoking in areas where it is banned

such as toilets and schools. Smoke detectors in large commercial, industrial, and residential buildings are

usually powered by a central fire alarm system, which is powered by the building power with a battery backup.

However, in many single family detached and smaller multiple family housings, a smoke alarm is often powered

only by a single disposable battery .

LM35 Temperature Sensor : These sensors use a solid-state technique to determine the temperature.. They use

the fact as temperature increases, the voltage across adiode increases at a known rate. (Technically, this is

actually the voltage drop between the base and emitter – the Vbe – of a transistor). By precisely amplifying the



Relay and

Water pump














Automatic Fire Fighting…

International organization of Scientific Research 66 | P a g e

voltage change, it is easy to generate an analog signal that is directly proportional to temperature. There have

been some improvements on the technique but, essentially that is how temperature is measured. Because these

sensors have no moving parts, theyare precise, never wear out, don’t need calibration, work under many

environmental conditions, and are consistent between sensors and readings. Moreover they are easy to use .

Flame Sensor : This Flame Sensor can be used to detect fire source or other light sources of the wave length in

the range of 760nm – 1100 nm. It is based on the YG1006 sensor which is a high speed and high sensitive NPN

silicon phototransistor. Due to its black epoxy, the sensor is sensitive to infrared radiation.

Microcontroller: It is the heart of the system which controls all the activities of transmitting and receiving. A

microcontroller (also MCU or µC) is a functional computer system-on-achip. It contains a processor core,

memory, and programmable input/output peripherals.Microcontrollers include an integrated CPU, memory (a

small amount of RAM, program memory, or both) and peripherals capable of input and output. The IC used is

ATmega 32. It is an 8-bit microcontroller with 32 Kbytes of In-System Programming Flash Memory.The device

is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry

standard 80C51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be or programmed

in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. BASCOM_AVR programmers Notepad

is used. The code after compilation generates ‘.hex’ file which is a hardware level code.

Relay : A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a witching

mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to

control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and controlled


Pump water: Pump is a device used to move fluids (liquids or gases) or sometimes slurries by mechanical

action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid

direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps.

Pumps must havea mechanism which operates them, and consume energyto perform mechanical work by

moving the fluid. The activating mechanism is often reciprocating or rotary.

Light Emitting Diode (LED) : A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source that

resembles a basic pn-junction diode, except that an LED also emits light. When an LED’s anode lead has a

voltage that is more positive than its cathode lead by at least the LED’s forward voltage drop, current flows.

Electrons are able to recombine with holeswithin the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This

effect is called electroluminescence, and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is

determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor.

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) : GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications), is a

standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). It is controlled via AT

commands. Figure (2) illustrates the GSM modem.

Figure (2) GSM Modem

Automatic Fire Fighting…

International organization of Scientific Research 67 | P a g e

Siren : It is used to generate alarm sound whenever any of the sensors become active.


The microcontroller algorithm is based on performing the following steps :

 Polling the sensors .

 If the temperature sensor gives high reading , it is an indication of possible fire. .

 If the flame sensor gives abnormal reading , it is an indication of possible fire.

 If the smoke sensor gives a smoke alarm , it is an indication of possible fire.

 If the two sensors give abnormal readings , it is an indication of high possibility of fire.

 If the .three sensors gives abnormal readings , it is a definite indication of fire. .

Bascom programming language is used in programming the microcontroller The algorithm for the system is :


Initialization :

Put Relay OFF. (i,e. firefight pump is OFF).

Display GREEN LED ..

Poll the sensors:

If ( temperature > 50 ) , then call temperature subroutine..

If ( flame = ON ) , then call flame subroutine..

If ( smoke = ON ) , then call smoke subroutine..

If [( temperature > 50 ) AND ( flame = ON )] , then call temperature-flame subroutine..

If [( temperature > 50 ) AND ( smoke = ON )] , then call temperature-smoke subroutine..

If [( flame = ON ) AND ( smoke = ON )] , then call flame-smoke subroutine..

If [( temperature > 50 ) AND ( flame = ON ) AND ( smoke = ON )] , then call temperature-

flame-smoke subroutine..

Go to Poll the sensors.

Temperature :

… Put temperature LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 10 seconds.


Flame :

… Put flame LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 10 seconds.


Smoke :

… Put smoke LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 10 seconds.


Temperature-flame :

… Put temperature LED ON.

… Put flame LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 20 seconds.


temperature-smoke :

… Put temperature LED ON.

… Put smoke LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 210 seconds.


flame-smoke :

… Put flame LED ON.

… Put smoke LED ON.

…. Activate siren for 20 seconds.


Temperature-flame-smoke :

… Put temperature LED ON.

… Put flame LED ON.

… Put smoke LED ON.

Automatic Fire Fighting…

International organization of Scientific Research 68 | P a g e

… Activate the relay.

…. Activate siren for 30 seconds.



The system performs two types of tasks. The first type is that the system gives alarm for a possible fire

occurrence The second type is the automatic fire fighting task when the system assures the fire occurrence

.Table (1) below shows the results when operating the system .The table indicates the action taken for each


Table (1) The results when operating the system

Temp. sensor

Flame sensor

Smoke sensor






Temp. ON

Siren ON (10s.)




Flame ON

Siren ON (10s.)




Smoke ON

Siren ON (10s


Siren ON (20s.)





Siren ON (20s.)





Siren ON (20s.)




Temp+flame+ smoke


Siren ON (20s.) +

Relay ON

NOTE : Logic 1 = sensor is activated , Logic 0 = sensor is idle (not activated).


The circuit that enabled the firefighting system to detect and deal with over-temperature, smoke and

flame was designed, developed and tested. The Wireless firefighting System has successfully completed the

tasks as expected .The system is capable of indicating its status on LED indicator panel, detecting and putting

out fire. It’s also capable of communicating over GSM network through SMS. The ATmega32 microcontroller

is used to process the sensor circuitry input and control the indicator panel, and interface the system to GSM

network to enable wireless communication. It is also used to control a firefighting pump to put out flames when

detected. A model of the system is constructed and its operation is satisfactory.




Systems/Pub141_FireFighting, [3],accessed 05/04/2014.

[4] Steven Steven Frank Barrett, Daniel J. Pack, “Atmel AVR Microcontroller Primer: Programming and Interfacing”, Morgan &

Claypool Publishers, 2008



[7] h ttp://,

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Trader Joe’s: A Unique Grocery Shopping Experience



Trader Joe's: A Unique Grocery Shopping Experience

Discover the unparalleled shopping experience at Trader Joe’s, a renowned grocery store chain offering a wide range of high-quality products at affordable prices. Explore the diverse selection, innovative offerings, and friendly atmosphere that make Trader Joe’s a favorite destination for food enthusiasts.

Introduction: Welcome to Trader Joe’s

Trader Joe’s has revolutionized the grocery shopping industry with its distinctive approach to retail. With a commitment to providing unique and high-quality products, Trader Joe’s has garnered a loyal following of customers who are eager to explore the ever-changing assortment of items on their shelves. In this article, we will delve into the world of Trader Joe’s and explore the reasons why it stands out from the competition.

Trader Joe’s: A Shopper’s Paradise

A Haven for Food Enthusiasts

Trader Joe’s is more than just a grocery store; it’s a paradise for food enthusiasts. With an extensive selection of gourmet and specialty items sourced from around the world, Trader Joe’s caters to the discerning palate. From unique snacks and appetizers to artisanal cheeses and decadent desserts, there’s always something new and exciting to discover at Trader Joe’s.

Unbeatable Prices and Value

One of the hallmarks of Trader Joe’s is its commitment to providing exceptional value to its customers. While the store offers a wide range of high-quality products, it manages to keep its prices affordable. This combination of quality and value is what sets Trader Joe’s apart from its competitors, making it an attractive option for budget-conscious shoppers.

A Neighborhood Vibe

Step into any Trader Joe’s, and you’ll immediately notice the warm and welcoming atmosphere. With friendly staff members who are always ready to assist you, shopping at Trader Joe’s feels like a visit to your neighborhood store. The company prides itself on fostering a sense of community and creating an enjoyable shopping experience for its customers.

Exploring Trader Joe’s Selection

A Cornucopia of Fresh Produce

Trader Joe’s offers an impressive selection of fresh fruits and vegetables, sourced from trusted suppliers. Whether you’re in search of everyday staples or exotic produce, Trader Joe’s has you covered. From crisp apples to vibrant heirloom tomatoes, their produce section boasts a colorful array of options that will inspire any home cook.

Delightful Dairy and Cheese Selection

Cheese lovers rejoice! Trader Joe’s is renowned for its diverse selection of cheeses from around the world. From creamy Brie to tangy blue cheese, you’ll find a range of flavors and textures to suit your taste buds. Pair your favorite cheese with their assortment of crackers and you’re in for a treat.

International Flavors Galore

At Trader Joe’s, you can embark on a global culinary adventure without leaving the store. Their shelves are stocked with a wide variety of international ingredients and products, allowing you to explore different cuisines and expand your culinary horizons. Whether you’re in the mood for Thai curry, Italian pasta, or Indian spices, Trader Joe’s has everything you need to create authentic and flavorful dishes.

Unique and Innovative Offerings

One of the reasons why Trader Joe’s is so beloved is its constant introduction of unique and innovative products. The store takes pride in being a trendsetter in the grocery industry, and customers eagerly anticipate the arrival of new items. From seasonal treats to unexpected flavor combinations, Trader Joe’s never fails to surprise and delight its customers.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What makes Trader Joe’s different from other grocery stores?

Trader Joe’s stands out from other grocery stores due to its unique selection of products, unbeatable prices, and friendly atmosphere. The store offers an exciting array of gourmet and specialty items, all at affordable prices,making it a destination for food enthusiasts. Additionally, Trader Joe’s prides itself on creating a neighborhood vibe with its welcoming staff and sense of community.

2. Does Trader Joe’s offer organic and healthy options?

Yes, Trader Joe’s is known for its commitment to offering a wide range of organic and healthy options. The store carries a variety of organic produce, as well as organic dairy products, meats, and pantry staples. In addition, Trader Joe’s has a selection of gluten-free, vegan, and vegetarian products to cater to different dietary preferences and needs.

3. Are Trader Joe’s products affordable compared to other grocery stores?

Yes, Trader Joe’s is renowned for its affordability. While providing high-quality products, Trader Joe’s manages to keep its prices competitive. This combination of quality and value makes it an attractive choice for shoppers looking to get the most out of their budget.

4. Can I find international ingredients and spices at Trader Joe’s?

Absolutely! Trader Joe’s takes pride in offering a diverse range of international ingredients and spices. Whether you’re looking for exotic spices for a specific recipe or unique international snacks, Trader Joe’s has a selection that will satisfy your culinary cravings.

5. Are there any Trader Joe’s branded products?

Yes, Trader Joe’s has its own line of branded products. These Trader Joe’s branded items are carefully curated and developed to meet the company’s high standards for quality and taste. From snacks and pantry staples to frozen meals and beverages, you’ll find a variety of Trader Joe’s branded products throughout the store.

6. Does Trader Joe’s have a return policy?

Yes, Trader Joe’s has a customer-friendly return policy. If you’re not satisfied with a product you’ve purchased, you can return it to the store with a receipt for a full refund. Trader Joe’s aims to ensure customer satisfaction and stands behind the quality of their products.

Conclusion: A Shopping Experience Like No Other

Trader Joe’s offers a shopping experience that is truly unique. With its diverse and high-quality product selection, unbeatable prices, and friendly atmosphere, it has become a favorite destination for food enthusiasts and budget-conscious shoppers alike. Whether you’re searching for everyday essentials, international ingredients, or innovative snacks, Trader Joe’s has something to offer. So, the next time you’re in search of a grocery store adventure, don’t miss out on the vibrant and exciting world of Trader Joe’s.

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Rebbe’s Dollar distribution



Rebbe's Dollar distribution

Uncover the extraordinary story of the Rebbe’s Dollar distribution, a powerful tradition that has transformed lives and inspired acts of kindness across the globe.

The Rebbe’s one-dollar bill, a symbol of charity and compassion, continues to embody the spiritual legacy of Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, inspiring countless individuals to embrace a life of giving and kindness.

Every Sunday, people from all walks of life – Jews and non-Jews alike – would line up outside the Rebbe’s residence at 770 Eastern Parkway in Brooklyn, New York, eager to receive a dollar bill and a blessing from the Rebbe.

It was a testament to the universal nature of the Rebbe’s message of love, kindness, and the power of good deeds.

The Rebbe would hand out dollar bills to each individual, instructing them to donate the money to a charity of their choice. Through this small act of giving, the Rebbe instilled the value of charity and the potential of a single dollar to create positive change.

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Sustainable Diamonds – What You Need to Know About Lab-Grown Diamonds in NZ



Sustainable Diamonds - What You Need to Know About Lab-Grown Diamonds in NZ

The use of lab grown diamonds NZ in jewellery has been growing rapidly over the last few years. This is because they are eco-friendly, and they cost less than mined diamonds. However, it is essential to understand the differences between a lab-grown and a mined diamond before making a purchase decision.

A Lab-Grown Diamond is a synthetic diamond created by humans in a lab instead of being mined from the ground. They are similar to natural diamonds in almost every way, except that they do not cloud or lose their luster over time.

There are several processes that can be used to grow a diamond in a lab, but the most common ones are High Pressure-High Temperature (HPHT) and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). These methods are incredibly complex, but they have the same end goal: to replicate the conditions that naturally occur when a diamond grows on the earth’s surface.

Unlike mined diamonds, formed after millions of years of exposure to extreme heat and temperatures within the earth’s crust, lab-grown diamonds are created by scientists in a controlled environment. This allows them to mimic the same physical and chemical properties of natural diamonds, while also being significantly cheaper and environmentally friendly.

How They’re Made

When a diamond seed is placed inside of a sealed chamber, it is pressurized and heated until the carbon particles break down and crystallize into a fully grown diamond. This process is called growing a diamond in a lab, and many companies have done it since the 1960s.

In addition to being more sustainable, lab-grown diamonds are more ethical than mined diamonds because they don’t heavily impact the environment. For example, a study by Frost & Sullivan found that for each carat of diamonds mined using traditional methods, nearly 100 square feet of land is disturbed and more than 5,798 pounds of mineral waste are created.

Another great thing about lab-grown diamonds is that they don’t consume as much water in the making process. This is because the processes involved in creating a mined diamond require significant amounts of water, and they also create a lot of pollution.

This can lead to many issues, including depleted water supplies and environmental calamities. In addition, the soil can be destroyed, and in turn, the land is rendered unusable once mining operations have ceased.

It is also worth noting that lab-grown diamonds don’t contribute to global warming like mined diamonds, as their carbon is sourced from CO2 emissions. This is a very good thing for the planet, and it is one of the major reasons why people are switching to lab-grown diamonds instead of mined diamonds.

If you want to buy a piece of jewellery with a lab-grown diamond, you’ll need to do some research and make sure that you are getting a good deal on the product. You can do this by checking out prices at different retailers and comparing the costs. You can then choose which option is best for you and your budget.

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