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Two centuries of French glasses, from functional to high fashion

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A small town in eastern France has been the ‘capital of French spectacles’ for more than a century. 

Morez earned that title after decades of producing quality frames for the French glasses industry, which has supplied customers such as Audrey Hepburn, Sophia Loren, Nana Mouskouri and even politicians including Valéry Giscard d’Estaing. 

Jura known for metal work since 16th century

It all began in 1796 when Morez blacksmith Pierre Hyacinthe Caseaux, who specialised in pin nails, was looking to diversify, and created a pair of wire bésicles (spectacles). 

A few years later, he hired a small team and started producing more than 3,500 lunettes annually, selling them in France and Switzerland.

It was a new awakening for the Jura area, which had been renowned for its metalwork since the 16th century.

Very light frames, nicknamed lunettes fils (wire glasses) or lunettes cheveux (hair glasses), became a speciality, as well as pince-nez, the glasses favoured by US president Theodore Roosevelt. 

They are named after the French word pincer – literally, pinch the nose.

From 1826 to 1848, production in Morez increased from 3,000 pairs of glasses to 720,000 and reached 11 million pairs at the end of the century.

Manufacturing of glasses became so crucial to the area that specific training has been available since 1854. 

Originally focused on making watches, the Ecole Pratique d’industrie de Morez, which developed into the Lycée Victor Bérard, still offers an education in optical and micro-mechanical tradition.

Today, between 8.5 and 12 million pairs of glasses are manufactured each year in factories based in Jura. 

The Lunetiers du Jura is a collective of 29 industrial and commercial members (977 employees), specialising in all the skills related to the production of French eyewear. The network claims that more than 2,000 new models are developed in the region each year, and it produces more than 10 million glasses annually, half of which are exported worldwide. 

This makes Jura the world’s sixth-largest exporter of spectacle frames.

Museum tells story of Morez

The Musée de la lunette in Morez, opened in 2003, celebrates the town’s historic industry.

María de Mota, spokeswoman for the museum, said: “It is the only museum of glasses in France. It is almost the only one in Europe [there is just one other, in Italy].

“One part is about the industrial history of Morez, because it was the centre of the production of glasses in France and then in Europe during the 19th and the first part of the 20th century.

“And then we have a second part, which is really interesting: one of the best collections of glasses and optical objects.”

There is also an eclectic range of exhibitions, including a donation from ophthalmic optics expert Jean-Pierre Bonnac, a collection of 85 paintings donated by François-Honoré Jourdain, and historic machines and equipment.

 “The most popular is the Pierre Marly Collection. It is important all over the world,” says Ms de Mota.

It includes 2,500 objects – 300 of which are on display – celebrating the work of a very special French optician.

Pierre Marly changed glasses forever

“Pierre Marly was a self-taught man, and it was by chance that he became a celebrated eyewear designer,” says Gilbert Marly, his son. 

After a career in the military, Pierre worked as an optician. He was passionate about the profession and became technical director at Lissac, Paris’s first major optician shop. 

“In 1948, he got his diplome d’opticien and had only one idea in mind,” says his son – “to transform glasses from functional visual aids into fashion accessories”.

Pierre became a stylist to the stars, designing several models for his famous clientele. 

Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, he was responsible for some of the most striking frames to grace magazine covers and red carpets.

“In the press, Pierre Marly was known as le couturier des lunettes, or l’opticien qui habille les yeux du Tout-Paris,” says his son.

French quality is best

Now in the third generation, the Pierre Marly family business offers made-to-measure glasses in acetate or – staying true to the brand – rarer materials such as tortoiseshell or buffalo horn.

The shop has been at 50 rue François 1er, Paris, not far from the Champs-Elysées, since 1956.

“We intend to stay here as long as possible,” says Gilbert.

“As far as eyewear is concerned, historically in France, glasses are made in the Jura region.

“Today, in the face of foreign competition (Italian, Asian, etc), French manufacturing remains one of the best in terms of quality.”

Eyewear businesses based elsewhere in France, such as Lafont or Nathalie Blanc, also trust manufacturers in the Jura region for their savoir-faire and good reputation. 

Rescue bid for historic maker

Maison Bourgeat is considered one of the oldest eyewear manufacturers in France, having made nearly three million frames in Morez since 1879. 

It was recently rescued by optician Harry Bessis.

“I was looking for something different,” Mr Bessis said.

“Something that could have meaning and value. I also wanted to diversify my shops.

“I then found Maison Bourgeat, which was in receivership, as were most of the former workshops in the Jura. I did not hesitate for a second and launched myself into the adventure.”

Since then, the going has not always been smooth.

“Covid hit us hard as we opened four shops in late 2019, early 2020.

“I was afraid that the adventure would end. I then brought in three private partners who realised how lucky we were to have a 200-year-old treasure like this to develop and internationalise,” he says.

As far as possible, Mr Bessis is staying true to the business’s roots.

“All our frames are made in our Jura workshops – the Haute Lunetterie, our Muse range (affordable made-to-measure), and our limited series.”

The firm also works exclusively with Hoya, the world’s second-largest glass manufacturer, which makes its lenses in France.

While Japanese-owned, Hoya has a base in Emerainville, near Paris. It employs more than 150 people and makes nearly 2,000 lenses every day.

Historic workshop restored

Mr Bessis has also refurbished all the Jura workshop’s original metal fabrication machines, has hired new employees, and added a full acetate production facility. 

“We want as many people as possible to see these machines in operation, which are unique in the world,” he explains.

“Morez is the cradle of eyewear worldwide.

“Maison Bourgeat is one of the most historic and one of the last two bicentenary-old businesses here. It has never relocated production in its entire history.

“As far as the industrial part is concerned, we would like to open our doors to young designers or groups of opticians wishing to develop their own collections, with our know-how and using authentic machines and artisanal methods that are otherwise going to be lost.”

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Owner of iPhonix mobile Abhishek Balsara offers iPhones at the best rates

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Owner of iPhonix mobile Abhishek Balsara offers iPhones at the best rates

iPhonix mobile

The iPhone can be an expensive option for some, but its price covers all the requirements of a person’s life and it is completely reliable. With an iPhone, you probably don’t need any other external devices.
These days, people are very careful about what they buy and what they wear, and depending on the trend, they also pay attention to the type of purchase. As the world of technology evolves, so does the demand for more functionality. This is the reason why the iPhone has become so popular in India and is currently the longest running phone that competes with Android.

Abhishek Balsara

To be precise, the iPhone is admired by almost everyone because it not only looks good but also has essential features that are really useful for the people who use it. Also, there have been a lot of updates as the company has been waiting for what people actually find useful and necessary in a phone. The iPhone may be an expensive option for some, but its price is completely reliable as it covers all the requirements of a person’s life. . With an iPhone, you probably don’t need any other external devices. You can trust him and his tasks so you never have to worry again.

The price range is usually a big problem for people, but today we will talk about the people and their institutions that make these smartphones very cheap and affordable. This is the only store that offers the latest genuine iPhones at the lowest prices and no other store offers similar products and services. It has been around for a long time and can be completely trusted due to its solid reputation and the great reviews it has collected over the years.

iPhonix Mobile is completely customer focused and has provided unmatched customer service for a long time, earning people’s trust and admiration. So come on, if you want the perfect smartphone, you know where to go. Not only is it the latest trend in the market, but it is also very affordable.

Please visit iPhonix Mobile at the link below for the latest product information. Be the first to get it!

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How to Find an Obituary for a Specific Person

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How to Find an Obituary for a Specific Person

As part of your family tree or ancestry research, you may need to find the obituary of a particular person. This article provides a list of resources to help find the obituary of a particular person.

Obituaries are one of the most important sources of information genealogists look for when looking for clues related to the life of their ancestors. What many may not know is that the practice of announcing death in this way dates back to 59 BC.

Roman newspapers inscribed in metal or stone, known as the Acta Diurna (Daily Events), are published in important places in Rome. It features celebrity births and deaths, as well as general gossip about important people in the city.

In 1439, the printing press was invented, and with the advent of newspapers, the practice of announcing prominent deaths continued.This has survived and is still a common practice.

So why do genealogies need obituaries, and more importantly

, how do you find the obituaries you need for your research?

Importance of obituaries


relatives and friends
Those with aging parents or who lived with grandparents may have sat and read the local newspaper to see if anyone they knew had died. As we grow older, we feel a morbid fascination with our own mortality, and as a result, we become fascinated by the people we meet and those who are close to our own age.

An obituary is an opportunity for families to let people they don’t know know that a loved one has died. In many cases, this allows family members to let people know when the funeral will be held, and old friends to attend and offer their condolences.

Obituaries serve an important social function. Because bereaved families don’t have to spend time grieving connecting with everyone the deceased loved one may have known.

genealogist
Although obituaries are very important to genealogists, they are technically not considered definitive documentary evidence. Searching for ancestors in obituaries can help you find important information such as:

close relatives
Religion and Church Affiliation
date of birth and place of birth
place of death and date of death
former job


important biographical information


The family information provided in the obituary helps distinguish between the two of her namesakes in official documents. Knowing the names of siblings and parents makes it easier to determine a person’s accurate census record.
As with any mystery, there may be many small clues here to help you find the truth and the documents that support it. should always be taken as clues until further evidence is documented.

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Cost increases faced with end of Adjusted Right to Rent checks

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Cost increases faced with end of Adjusted Right to Rent checks

Rental agents are taking significant steps to comply with rental eligibility checks as the system allowing for coordinated checks (for example via Zoom calls and copies of documents) will end in the UK on 30 September of 2022. We are facing increasing costs.

From October 1, 2022, agents responsible for reapplying for tenants and rent checks will need to review their processes to be ready to return to manual in-person checks (this may be because someone who qualifies as a UK resident you will still be admitted if you present a valid ID). and Irish citizens), or register with one of the proptech service providers accredited by the UK government as a Digital Identity Service Provider (IDSP). Foreign checks must be processed through the Ministry of the Interior’s Sharecode system, to which agents have free access.

The change comes at the same time that agencies will have to deal with rising energy bills and rising staff retention costs by maintaining competitive compensation packages.

IDSP cost for British and Irish citizens
With the announcement of the first IDSP under the UK’s digital identity and attribute trust framework, agents need to be aware of and prepare for the upcoming changes. With the promulgation of the Tenant Fees Act 2019, the costs associated with the delivery of checks for the right to rent have not changed and cannot be passed on to applicants.

Coordinated checks were introduced as part of COVID-19 measures to reduce face-to-face contact and have been expanded as the Home Office works to implement a robust digital solution for national checks in the UK and Ireland. If an agent wishes to provide digital checks to people with ID cards in the UK and Ireland, once adjusted rental eligibility verification is complete, the agent will need to register with an ID service provider who will incur a fee for the service. Alternatively, agents can provide a manual verification in person if the applicant provides a suitable British or Irish ID. If an agent chooses to use IDSPs, they must take into account UK and Irish citizens who choose to verify their identity offline and must not discriminate on that basis.

Digital verifications for foreigners can be done easily and at no external cost by verifying through the home office system in real time using the common digital code and date of birth provided by the applicant.

If the agency’s system relies primarily on in-person reviews, consider the need for additional time and resources to schedule appointments for applicant reviews (and follow-up reviews of submitters, subject to time constraints). status) and the associated time change.

Keeping track of rent checks is more important than ever
Propertymark members notify the Home Office to establish a “legal excuse” for agents to provide statutory audit information if they are unable to obtain a foreign rent check again during the rental period. against late and/or civil penalties.

The Rental Law Code of Practice is ambiguous about liability for civil penalties when agents use IDSPs. The ultimate responsibility for verification rests with the landlord or designated rental agent. Therefore, the use of a UK government accredited IDSP does not eliminate all risks of civil penalties for landlords or designated rental agents when investigated by immigration authorities.

The reintroduction of personal checks coincided with seasonal changes in the incidence of COVID, the impact of which is unknown.

Since it was first introduced under immigration law in 2014, the work required for agents to complete rent checks in the UK has increased dramatically and there are now over 100 pages of instructions for agents to understand. years. The Rent Payments Act of 2019 forced agents to incur higher costs in this area.

A period of additional requirements is coming, whether agents continue to conduct in-person rental checks during application and follow-up or use one of our approved IDSP providers. This is a particular problem given the heightened scrutiny of students who are British citizens from the academic year onwards.

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